Summary of Challenges in Gang Research Meeting Now Available

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February 22-23, 2011

On this page find:

  • Meeting Summary: Challenges in Basic Research
    • Definitions
    • Researcher-Practitioner Partnerships
    • Joining Gangs
    • Desistance From Gang Life
    • Secondary Analysis
  • Translating Research
  • Anti-Gang Programs
    • Selecting Sites and Identifying Populations
    • Implementation
    • Blueprints Program Applied to Gang Members — Terry Thornberry
    • Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative — Gretchen Shappert
    • Chicago CeaseFire — Candice Kane
    • Gang Diversion Team, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department — Cecil Rhambo
    • Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T. ) — Finn Esbensen
    • Homeboy Industries — Hector Verdugo
  • Participant List
  • Meeting Agenda
    • High-Priority Research Needs, 2009
    • Advances in Research
    • Research Gaps
      • Basic Research on Gangs
      • Responding to Gangs
      • Approaches to Gang Research

Meeting Summary: Challenges in Basic Research

On Feb 22-23, 2011, a National Institute of Justice (NIJ) hold a two-day Topical Working Group assembly of consultant gang
researchers and practitioners (see Participant List). The participants deliberate a issues and gaps in simple squad investigate and anti-gang programs, including intervention,
impediment and deterrence. The Working Group spent a initial day deliberating hurdles in simple research; on a second day,
they focused on improving a anti-gang programs.

 In 1999, NIJ and a Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) convened a assembly called a Gang-Related
Research Cluster Conference. At that time, a margin of anti-gang programs and squad investigate was in a infancy. Participants
during this assembly combined a list of high-priority investigate needs (see High Priority Research Needs, 1999). The stream Working Group used this list as a starting indicate for contention of a state of squad research. They concluded
that several advances had been finished in areas of squad investigate given 1999 (see “Advances in Research”). In general, a advances
in believe included: a sequence between gangs, assault and victimization; a short-lived inlet of squad membership; female
impasse in gangs; gangs existent among white, suburban and farming communities; and a farrago and nontraditional typology
of gangs.

Despite a advances, several investigate gaps sojourn to be deliberate (see Research Gaps).

Definitions

Often, squad investigate suffers from a crowd of definitions for how people are identified and accurate as squad members.
Gang membership can be identified in many ways, including self-identification, graffiti marks, articulate with informants, having
tattoos or certain clothing, and duty assessment. Using authorised definitions for gangs has proven to be cryptic because
a weight of authorised explanation is really high.

From a investigate standpoint, entrance to a accord of what a squad is, and who depends as a squad member, is vicious to guiding
destiny research. A accord clarification allows for researchers to rivet in comparative, cross-site and multimethod research.
Currently, there seems to be a pierce in a investigate village toward embracing a clarification of gangs that is identical to the
clarification of a derelict girl group. In a past, however, researchers have drawn a eminence between these dual groups.

It is probable for an particular to be identified both as a squad member and as a member of a derelict girl organisation if that
particular does, in fact, correlate with both groups. This miss of clarity blurs a line between a groups. However, differences
do exist. For example, girl groups generally have immeasurable counterpart networks and competence correlate frequently with really opposite populations
with no identified affiliations. Gangs, by contrast, have a negotiable organisation temperament that maintains itself even after the
strange organisation members have altered divided from a squad life.

Currently, researchers ordinarily use self-identification in last squad connection and membership. When an individual
takes on a squad identity, it mostly involves a routine by that an particular is labeled as a squad member by law enforcement,
self-identifies as a squad member and joins a gang. In addition, a purpose of squad member enforces a clarification and connotation
of being a squad member. There are expectations and standards in gangs, only as there are in other groups, and they contingency be
met to be deliberate partial of a squad by other members. If a girl does not accommodate during slightest some of those expectations, it would
be formidable for him or her to self-identify as a member of a squad (as a squad would not accept a chairman as one of their
own).

In addition, there are few ways of assessing inhabitant estimates of a superiority of gangs, squad membership or gang-related
activity. A artistic proceed to entertainment gang-related information competence embody researchers building elements of squad membership
into existent inhabitant surveys. Validated squad measures could be enclosed in studies that are not privately about gangs.
For example, researchers have collected a over-abundance of self-reported information that have been certified by churned studies.
The same is not loyal for central data; therefore, some-more inhabitant studies need to be finished with central information to demonstrate
their application and validity.

There has been substantial investigate on particular factors concerned with fasten gangs and enchanting in squad activity, but
some-more investigate needs to concentration on gangs as groups. Currently, there seems to be a pierce in this instruction within a research
community. However, a area of squad investigate does not have a common denunciation for deliberating organizational elements of gangs
such as structure, routine and specialization. NIJ competence cruise sponsoring a extent on gangs that deals with these kinds
of issues, including how to conclude gangs and squad membership.

Researcher-Practitioner Partnerships

To build an approval and bargain of constructional and organic elements, squad researchers should cruise building research
partnerships with law enforcement. These partnerships are useful for law coercion though also could assistance a researchers in
building innovative investigate as a outcome of extended entrance to a data. One such partnership was with a researcher who
was examining a amicable networks of gangs. The commander investigate conducted in Boston, Mass., found a clever attribute between
removing shot and carrying a unenlightened network of squad members and friends. The luck that someone would be shot was highly
contingent on a friendships shaped opposite opposite groups, called a “structural signature. ” Field Information (FI) cards
used by law coercion were a source of central data, with churned results. FI cards furnish generally regressive estimates
of relationships; however, it is mostly formidable to get law coercion officers to finish a FI cards.

Joining Gangs

Another area of seductiveness for researchers is a routine by that girl join gangs. For example, if a girl is intent in delinquent
behavior, what is a cause that moves him or her to join a gang? One of a ways to provoke out this routine is by structured
interviews to get during factors and dynamics that could be in play, other than risk factors (e.g., amicable temperament models, or
strength of identification). Social psychologists would substantially advise that shortening uncertainty, improving self-esteem
and gaining certain eminence as 3 vital reasons for girl selecting to spin partial of a specific group. These reasons
(and other dynamics) yield researchers with another intensity trail to bargain squad membership. Using these dynamics,
in and with amicable networking data, should furnish a opposite settlement of squad membership — one that falls along a
continuum rather than providing a dichotomous gang/no-gang perspective.

Desistance From Gang Life

Finally, a organisation examined how to urge factors to keep people out of gangs and assistance others terminate from squad life.
Issues in these studies are identical to other anticipation studies. A primary emanate is to investigate something that has nonetheless to
happen. One probable resolution is to control impending longitudinal studies. This, of course, means that longitudinal databases
need to constraint researchers’ best guesses as to that variables are important. Thus, a problem to solve is creation certain that
suitable measures are enclosed in investigate on these issues. It also means holding into comment both unsentimental factors —
such as formulating interviews of a reasonable length — and some-more fanciful ones — such as carrying a foreknowledge to consider about
resiliency in late adolescence — when formulating a interview.

Secondary Analysis

Secondary information investigate is a vicious partial of conducting squad research. NIJ should continue to yield appropriation for secondary
information analysis, and information from evaluations should be finished permitted to outward researchers as shortly as possible. Conducting secondary
information investigate is many reduction dear than entertainment new data. One researcher forked out that information sets about schools and
communities also can be used. Researchers do not need to extent themselves to information from module evaluations or rapist justice-related
research.

Translating Research

Over a past 30 years, there has been substantial investigate on gangs. However, many of this work is not disseminated to line-level
practitioners, such as street-level law coercion officers or people operative in community-based organizations. For
these people to do their work successfully, investigate contingency be translated into an permitted denunciation that is transparent and
concise. The information supposing should plead how investigate commentary request to policy, routine or module growth and
needs to be in a form that is simply permitted to all audiences.

The shortcoming to interpret and disseminate investigate commentary falls to a investigate community. This is vicious for several
reasons. First, researchers need to yield information to practitioners that ensures programs will be implemented faithfully.
Second, researchers need to endorse that investigate does not get translated in such a approach that it loses a meaning. Finally,
programs need to be translated so that if instrumentation occurs, it does not impact a outcome.

Researchers competence not be skilful during translating and disseminating their investigate findings, generally as they describe to policy.
Too often, translating investigate commentary for a practitioner universe is not rewarded by investigate or educational institutions.
NIJ can play a singular purpose in translating this investigate into a form that is useful to a field.

However, some training and technical assistance should support in familiarizing practitioners with a investigate margin and interpretation
of investigate data. Both researchers and practitioners contingency attend in relocating believe from investigate to practice. It is
not clear, for example, that all law coercion crew know what amicable scholarship investigate could be done, and its
value to a day-to-day operations in a field. Additional preparation on this subject could be profitable for practitioners.

Anti-Gang Programs

Selecting Sites and Identifying Populations

Communities and people who spin concerned in a module can impact outcomes. Researchers competence select communities that
are mild and usurpation of module trials though presumably equivocate communities with aloft risk factors that are some-more in need
of a programming. Furthermore, a youths who attend in a programs are mostly either: (a) those who volunteered for
and chose to attend in a module or (b) those girl identified by a people implementing a module as those with
a biggest need, nonetheless this competence not compare with girl who have a many risk factors. The girl who attend usually
are in need, though their appearance means that a programs are not reaching a high-risk group.

Some programs also competence confederate girl of opposite risk levels. This can be profitable and can yield a certain counterpart group
for high-risk kids. However, a novel indicates that it can have disastrous effects, quite if a module is not
rarely structured. In that case, a module competence have a unpropitious outcome on low-risk girl rather than a certain effect
on high-risk youth.

Conversely, bringing programs into communities from a outward can be a challenge. It is vicious to get “buy-in” from the
community, quite if that module is noticed as commanding standards on a village from a outside. Many programs for
girl emanate a “new community” in that girl competence participate. However, these girl contingency live in and confront a amicable norms
to navigate their stream community, as zero in a aged village has altered — a risk factors all sojourn in place.

The village needs to be invested in a building and doing of programs. In addition, girl contingency find activities
with that they privately identify; they do not attend only since of requirement or boredom. Being partial of a particular
organisation needs to spin partial of their amicable temperament — partial of who they are, rather than simply something they do. In a same
way, appearance in a squad can settle a youth’s self-identity.

Implementation

Implementing anti-gang programs can be formidable opposite churned populations, amicable and domestic contexts, and cities. Different
geographical areas and groups have opposite issues, resources and strategies for solution those issues. Challenges naturally
arise when requesting a “one-size-fits-all” indication to a community. Prevention programs contingency excavate into a marginalized populations
in a community, holding into comment a needs of those populations and bettering programs to accommodate those needs.

The significance of measuring a efficacy of community-oriented wraparound programs now in place can't be overstated.
However, researchers and practitioners need softened ways of measuring effectiveness. Certainly, outcome measures are important
when examining squad impediment programs; however, notwithstanding a many existent impediment programs, researchers have had problems
evaluating them in a severe and unchanging way. Researchers presumably need to urge a approach they magnitude outcomes in gang
investigate or they need to spin their courtesy to programs that benefaction earnest methods of measuring outcomes. Finn Esbensen,
from a University of Missouri, St. Louis, remarkable that community-based programs have roughly no outcome on squad membership in
a communities in that they are implemented. That is not to contend that squad investigate should equivocate expanding a horizons.
In fact, zero in a investigate novel provides a clever motive that justifies regulating one specific organisation of programs
or activities.

Blueprints Program Applied to Gang Members — Terry Thornberry

Terry Thornberry, from a University of Maryland, College Park, presented an overview and refurbish of a Blueprints for Gang
Prevention module during a luncheon discussion. The strange Blueprints beginning — Blueprints for Violence Prevention —
was launched in 1996. The purpose of Blueprints was to brand and replicate effective assault impediment programs. Blueprints
has despotic and severe systematic standards for last that programs are effective:

  • The module contingency use an initial settlement or severe quasi-experimental settlement to settle possibly or not a module works.
  • There contingency be poignant halt effects, demonstrated by reductions in delinquency, assault or drug use.
  • The module contingency be replicated with demonstrated effects. Programs that accommodate these standards are deliberate to be indication Blueprints
    programs.

In 2008, Blueprints began a new beginning focused privately on building and contrast squad impediment and intervention
programs. The idea was to brand dual or 3 Blueprints programs with a top odds of success for squad members.
An endless examination of squad impediment and impasse programs showed that nothing of a programs met a Blueprints standard
for evidence-based indication programs. The 3 programs with a many success were family-based programs: Functional Family
Therapy, Multisystemic Therapy, and Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care. Visit a Blueprints for Violence Prevention Web page Exit Notice.

The Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI) — Gretchen Shappert

Gretchen Shappert, Assistant Director of Violent, Indian and Cyber Crime in a Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA)
during a U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), supposing a story of a Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI). CAGI was launched
in 2006 as an prolongation of DOJ’s Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) program. PSN focused on shortening gun violence. CAGI uses
PSN’s coercion strategies though targets a efforts to gangs as against to gun violence. The beginning includes prevention,
coercion and reentry plan components that find to revoke squad impasse and squad violence.

 CAGI faced some early challenges, including a deficiency of opening measures identified during a outset, and a miss of
superintendence from DOJ to sites for implementing a program. On a other hand, by extenuation sites substantial flexibility, CAGI
authorised communities to change internal needs with a inhabitant standards when conducting a program.

Currently, DOJ is watchful for a formula of an altogether investigate of CAGI by Michigan State University. In a teleconference
conducted with member from CAGI cities in a tumble of 2010, a ubiquitous feeling was that CAGI was inestimable despite
doing challenges. It speedy assign force partnership and growth of operative relationships, that improved
a size of law coercion overall. Additionally, participants in a discussion call felt that, anecdotally, a relationships
grown between law coercion and internal communities were some-more distinguished and reduction adversarial as a outcome of CAGI and PSN.
Communities no longer saw law coercion as an intruding force.

Lessons schooled from CAGI embody a following:

  • Funding though endless formulation was unsound for a totally new initiative; a need for a amply prolonged period
    of formulation is essential.
  • The sovereign supervision defines, for a purposes, what a squad is, though a definitions of gangs change from state to state and
    therefore from one CAGI commander site to another. Before endeavour an beginning such as CAGI, it is vicious to establish,
    during a outset, a clarification of what a squad is.
  • Gangs pierce around, and squad activities change; effectively relating resources to reentry needs is a challenge. For example,
    squad members identified in jail as being from specific neighborhoods do not always go behind to those neighborhoods. Discrepancies
    in outcome can outcome from squad transformation from one village to another.

Chicago CeaseFire — Candice Kane

Candice Kane, from a University of Illinois Chicago Project for Violence Prevention, presented information on Chicago CeaseFire.
CeaseFire is a Chicago-based assault impasse module that targets a tiny population: members of a village with
a high possibility of “being shot or being a shooter” in a nearby future. Outreach workers warn clients and bond them with
services; assault interrupters rivet members of a aim race on a street, mediating conflicts between gangs and
operative to forestall a cycle of retaliatory assault from starting after a aroused incident. The core training for employees
is compared directly to a work and focuses on dispute involvement and response.

A organisation from Northwestern University conducted routine and outcome evaluations of CeaseFire programs during churned sites. The
outcome evaluations suggested that there were poignant changes in squad carnage patterns (e.g., decreases in squad involvement
in homicides, and fewer retaliatory killings) that could be attributed to a program, though no particular site softened on
all outcome measures. Feedback from a customer race dynamic that clients perceived a assistance they needed. Process evaluations
were not conducted during all sites, so it was not probable to see what specific components of a module contributed to the
altogether success. Programs differed significantly from site to site since they were mostly underneath a instruction of local
horde organizations.

Read “Evaluation of CeaseFire-Chicago” (pdf, 229 pages) Exit Notice by Wesley G. Skogan et al..

See an interview with Ceasefire-Chicago executive executive Gary Slutkin.

Read “CeaseFire: A Public Health Approach to Reduce Shootings and Killings” by Nancy Ritter, from a NIJ Journal.

Gang Diversion Team, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department — Cecil Rhambo

Cecil Rhambo, with a Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, Field Operations Region II, discussed a Gang Diversion Team
(GDT). GDT targets masculine and womanlike probationers between 12 and 17 years of age. The module has 8 sites and approximately
300 girl who attend in any 16-week session. Youth are grouped into one of 4 levels (Level 4 is reliable active
squad members). The module has elicited certain reactions from parents, though a altogether success rate is unknown. A formal
investigate has not been conducted.

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Rhambo noted, as an aside, that a many successful module he had participated in was a Weed Seed module in Compton, Cal.,
that remade a area. Violence was not separated entirely, though drug traffic and squad activity were reduced. He argued
that wishing to equivocate a sovereign assign seemed to yield a good inducement for avoiding rapist activity.

When asked, Rhambo identified a aspects of a GDT module he would many wish to see evaluated. Focusing on a Level 4
youth, Rhambo had dual questions for that he wanted answers: (1) How do we forestall Level 4 girl from fasten gangs? (2)
How do we get them out of gangs once they are in — what is a “tipping point” that motivates a girl to leave a gang?

Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T. ) — Finn Esbensen

Finn Esbensen, from a University of Missouri-St. Louis, presented information on a Gang Resistance Education and Training
(G.R.E.A.T. ) module evaluation, on that he is a principal investigator. The G.R.E.A.T. module is an officer-facilitated,
school-based curriculum that is focused on preventing squad membership and girl assault by building certain life skills
in youth. The module was combined by a organisation of law coercion officers in Phoenix, Ariz., in 1991; they were given a couple
of months to emanate a squad impediment program, that laid a grounds for G.R.E.A.T. The module primarily looked similar
to a D.A.R.E. module (all of a officers concerned were D.A.R.E. members). By 1992, a module had been implemented at
sites opposite a country. In 1994, NIJ saved a module investigate of G.R.E.A.T., that was headed by Esbensen.

Results of a investigate were presented in 1998; they indicated that G.R.E.A.T. was not carrying many module impact. This
led to a two-year vicious comment and several recommendations for change. A new and stretched G.R.E.A.T. module was developed,
and in 2003, a new chronicle transposed a aged one. In 2006, NIJ announced a questionnaire for routine and outcome evaluations
of a revised program. As in a progressing study, Esbensen served as a principal questioner for these evaluations.

Esbensen found high fealty in G.R.E.A.T.’s doing in many of a 500 G.R.E.A.T. programs observed. He credited the
complete training a officers perceived for a high officer fealty in presenting a module materials. On a basement of
investigate results, a G.R.E.A.T. module seemed to revoke squad membership, though it did not uncover any effects on delinquency
or violence. The evaluators found poignant differences among sites, though a differences did not seem to be explained
by module fidelity. The subsequent step in a investigate will be to brand and control for targeted risk factors during different
sites.

Esbensen endorsed that practitioners who work within a immeasurable bureaucracy should take advantage of evaluations already
finished by others, generally if they are struggling to get evidence-based programs started or are implementing existing
programs. If earnest programs such as G.R.E.A.T. are implemented in a approach they were intended, a investigate formula should
be a same.

A member commented that some programs do not work, though they have high name approval and continue to be used — such
as Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E. ). He asked whether, underneath those circumstances, it would be softened to throw the
module totally or to change a module though keep a name. Fear of investigate can be a poignant cause for squad prevention
and impasse programs. Too often, module crew fear a severe investigate that competence find that their module is “broken.”
Program officials would be softened served by incorporating investigate commentary to urge their programs. If a module is “broken,”
stairs can be taken to repair it so it can be re-evaluated, presumably ensuing in softened outcomes. Particularly in times of tight
budgets, it is vicious to repair already existent programs rather than formulating wholly new ones. The G.R.E.A.T. module is
an instance of this.

Read Evaluating G.R.E.A.T. : A School-Based Gang Prevention Program (pdf, 7 pages) by Finn-Aage Esbensen..

Homeboy Industries — Hector Verdugo

Hector Verdugo, from Homeboy Industries, Los Angeles, Cal., presented commentary from a organization’s work with individuals
perplexing to leave gangs. Father Greg Boyle started Homeboy Industries in Los Angeles as a jobs module that charity alternatives
to squad violence. Since a inception, Homeboy Industries has stretched to residence a many opposite needs of at-risk, recently
expelled and before gang-involved girl by charity a far-reaching operation of giveaway programs (from mental health services to poetry
classes to tattoo removal) and using 4 businesses as job-training sites. Homeboy Industries aims to assistance individuals
route their lives into some-more certain paths.

Homeboy Industries is now being evaluated by Todd Franke and Jorja Leap, who are during a University of California, Los
Angeles.

Participant List

Katrina Baum
Director, Violence and Victimization Research Division, NIJ

Donna Davis
Social Science Analyst, Violence and Victimization Research Division, NIJ

Scott Decker
Foundation Professor,
Arizona State University, and
Director, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Finn-Aage Esbensen
Chair, Department of Criminology Criminal Justice
University of Missouri, St. Louis, and
E. Desmond Lee Professor of Youth Crime and Violence

Bruce Folkens
Lieutenant, Minneapolis (MN) Police Department, and Commander, Gang Enforcement Team

Karen Hennigan
Assistant Professor of Psychology
University of Southern California

David Huizinga
Senior Research Associate, Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado, Boulder

Candice Kane
Chief Operating Officer, Chicago Project for Violence Prevention
(Chicago CeaseFire), University of Illinois-Chicago

Charles Katz
Associate Professor, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University;
Watts Family Director, Center for Violence Prevention and Community Safety

Barbara Kelley
Juvenile Justice Program Specialist, Demonstration Programs Division, OJJDP

Cheryl Maxson
Associate Professor, Department of Criminology, Law Society
University of California, Irvine

Chris Melde
Assistant Professor and Coordinator of Undergraduate Studies
School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University

Phyllis Newton
Director, Office of Research and Evaluation, NIJ

Andrew Papachristos
Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst;
Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholar, Harvard University

Steffie Rapp
Juvenile Justice Specialist, OJJDP

Winifred Reed
Division Director, Crime Control and Prevention Research Division
Office of Research and Evaluation, NIJ

Cecil Rhambo
Assistant Sheriff, Divisions of Custody, Correctional, Court,
Technical Services, and Leadership and Training
Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department

Gretchen Shappert
Assistant Director, Indian, Violent and Cyber Crime Staff
Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), U.S. DOJ

Terence Thornberry
Professor, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice,
University of Maryland, College Park

George Tita
Associate Professor, Department of Criminology, Law Society
University of California, Irvine

Louis Tuthill
Social Science Analyst, Crime Control and Prevention Research Division, NIJ

Hector Verdugo
Associate Executive Director, Homeboy Industries, Los Angeles, Cal.

Phelan Wyrick
Senior Advisor to a Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs

Agenda

High-Priority Research Needs, 1999

In 1999, a Gang-Related Research Cluster Conference, convened by NIJ, highlighted a fact that not many was famous in gang-related
research. Many programs and investigate initiatives were only starting, so many of a assembly was relegated to people talking
about squad injunctions, organizational structure, and so on.

Conference participants identified high-priority investigate needs for NIJ. Since then, a infancy of them have been addressed,
though few have been addressed thoroughly. The needs identified during a discussion included:

  • Organizational speculation practical to squad dynamics.
  • Common information needs and standardised information collection opposite sovereign projects.
  • Overlap between military and self-report information (definitions).
  • Empirical justification for best practices in squad prevention, impasse and suppression.
  • Role of institutions in enhancing squad membership activity.
  • Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches.
  • Multisite, multimethod research.
  • Uses of a squad problem for domestic purposes.
  • Resolving risk, resiliency and insurgency predictors.
  • Gang crime vs. unchanging evasion — temporal and spatial differences.
  • High-crime vs. low-crime gangs — structure and duty of activities.
  • Differences in structures and organisation processes in squad and non-gang groups.
  • Institutional and village family with gangs.
  • Institutions’ socializing effects.
  • What are a effective mechanisms of best practices/intervening variables?
  • Impact of labor markets on squad crime and membership.
  • Need for specialized (e.g., gender, cultural) squad impediment and impasse practices (the one-size-fits-all problem).
  • Matching programs to needs of offenders (developmental considerations).
  • Worst practices in squad impediment and intervention.
  • What accounts for peaks and valleys in a squad cycle?
  • Temporal cycles per squad assault (e.g., Is squad activity reduce during a propagandize year and aloft during a summer?).
  • Extent of weapons use.
  • Focus on analogous informative studies.

Advances in Research

Since a 1999 conference, what have we schooled from and about squad research?

  • Based on longitudinal studies with girl surveys conducted in Denver, Colo., and Rochester, N.Y., that focused on a enhancement
    and facilitation effects of gangs on their members, a common knowledge is that levels of derelict activity boost when
    girl join gangs, quite where aroused activity is occurring. The same settlement is celebrated in victimization.

    • Even when propensity-score relating is used to control for pre-existing differences, there is still an boost in violence
      and victimization among squad members that declines after squad members exit a gang.
  • The attribute between victimization, fear and crime is all compared with gangs. Fear of victimization induces a youth
    to join/participate in gang-related activities.
  • Criminal duty of a girl declines after exiting a gang, that emphasizes a significance of squad impediment and intervention.
    Gang impediment and impasse will impact a offending rate of a individual. If a length of time in a squad can be
    shortened, a evasion rate of a girl can be decreased.
  • The encouragement outcome of squad membership is compared with changes in attitudes when a squad member joins or leaves a gang.
    There is not many investigate in this area.
  • Gang membership can be a short-lived theatre for a immeasurable infancy of adolescents. Research from Denver, Colo., Rochester, N.Y.,
    Seattle, Wash., and a G.R.E.A.T. investigate — among others — shows that a normal length of stay is reduction than one year for
    60 percent to 70 percent of girl who spin concerned in squad activities. There is a miss of information on a transitional
    proviso of a youth’s preference to presumably attend or not attend in a squad as good as when a girl competence select to stay
    or not stay in a gang:

    • Relationship to methods: When and how mostly one asks, “Have we ever been in a gang?” competence boost a series of short-lived members who can be identified.
    • Relationship to intervention, impediment and suppression: It is vicious not to disgrace or tag girl as squad members or with other disastrous connotations during a transitional
      phase.

Research Gaps

Basic Research on Gangs:

  • Develop a accord on a common clarification of “gangs” for use in research.
  • Examine a purpose of squad dynamics and squad affiliation.
  • Vary a risk factors for squad membership opposite gender, ethnicity and other factors.
  • Vary a risk factors for aroused crime and squad affiliation.
  • Examine a life cycle of squad membership.
  • What are a methods and processes by that kids join, attend and leave gangs? Do these processes change by gender, ethnicity
    or urban/suburban/rural location?
  • Understand a transition between travel and jail gangs.
  • Understand a family between immigration and squad membership.
  • Examine a differences between squad members and severely derelict youth.
  • Examine a distinctions among nondelinquency, short- and long-term squad membership, and critical delinquency.
  • Develop a softened bargain of squad prevalence.
  • Why, notwithstanding carrying identical risk factors, do some girl join gangs and some do not (resilience)?
  • Conduct some-more investigate on gangs as groups.
  • What are a social, village and area conditions that give arise to squad membership? What are a factors in U.S.
    multitude that lead to this?
  • What are a stream trends in gang-related crime? Why?

Responding to Gangs:

  • How are interventions targeted?
  • What girl advantage many from what type(s) of interventions?
  • How should interventions change for those who are closely concerned with gangs contra those who are marginally involved?
  • Need to softened know a transferability beliefs of proven impasse programs.
  • In what amicable conditions and in what ways can people be brought together to muster and to forestall girl from fasten gangs?
  • Need to control additional evaluations of squad interventions.
  • Need to besiege particular effects of extensive programs.

Approaches to Gang Research:

  • Translating a investigate commentary some-more effectively to a practitioner and routine communities.
  • Using some-more modernized statistical investigate techniques to inspect a formidable inlet of gangs, such as amicable network analysis.
  • Improving a methods of measuring a efficacy of prevention, impasse and anticipation programs.
  • Using delegate information to investigate gangs, and adding gang-related questions to existent surveys.
  • Encouraging connoisseur investigate fellowships and postdoctoral investigate on gangs.
  • Supporting cluster conferences of researchers so that peer-to-peer training is encouraged.
  • Suggesting smaller, reduction dear studies, including multisite ethnographic studies.

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