In NIJ’s Research Report Digest, we will find brief descriptions of studies in a accumulation of rapist probity disciplines, such as criminology and forensic
sciences, and evaluations of technologies that are used in a law coercion and corrections fields.
This emanate includes reports formed on NIJ-funded investigate that were total to a NCJRS Abstracts Database from Oct through
Find investigate reports compared to:
- Forensic Sciences
Doing Death in Texas: Language and Jury Decision-Making in Texas Death Penalty Trials
Author: Robin Helene Conley
This thesis examines a means by that denunciation and enlightenment make death-penalty decisions probable by analyzing
jury decision-making in Texas death-penalty trials. The investigate focuses on how specific denunciation choices intercede and restrict
jurors’, attorneys’ and judges’ actions and use when enchanting in and reflecting on collateral trials. The dissertation
shows that when intent in an sincerely aroused state use (i.e., murdering convicted individuals), jurors, attorneys and
judges deceive and confront their impasse in a attack fundamental in this practice. When citing a act of execution, jurors
mostly change a preference to kill a convicted chairman onto a state or repudiate that tellurian beings have intent in an enterprise
set adult to kill another human. Another resource for jurors to equivocate a stress compared to murdering a associate tellurian being is
to welcome a linguistic dehumanization of defendants. Jurors effectively conceal consolation and a fulfilment that a defendant
is, in many respects, like themselves, nonetheless with a opposite credentials and set of use and behaviors. Any worth
a suspect competence have as a associate tellurian being is private by linguistic repetitions that remonstrate jurors a suspect has
finished things that invalidate him or her from being treated as a associate tellurian being. The thesis argues that denunciation is
one of a primary resources by that jurors support defendants as nonhuman, and so confirm to judgment them to death. The
investigate concerned 12 months of fieldwork in and around Houston, Texas. It enclosed interviews of jurors, attorneys, judges
and jail staff; member regard in genocide chastisement trials; audio recordings and note holding of these trials; and qualitative
linguistic analyses of transcribed interviews and courtroom interaction.
NIJ’s Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation
This five-year longitudinal process, impact and cost investigate of adult diagnosis drug justice programs sampled scarcely 1,800
drug justice and non-drug-court probationers from 29 rural, suburban and civic jurisdictions opposite a United States. The sample
includes 23 drug courts and 6 comparison groups in 8 states. The expectancy is that module appearance will result
in long-term benefits, that embody declines in drug use and rapist behavior.
The MADCE investigate addresses several investigate questions:
- What is a impact of adult drug courts on ethanol and other drug use, rapist recidivism, practice and other outcomes?
- What community, module and delinquent characteristics envision these short- and long-term outcomes?
- How do changes in short-term outcomes — such as delinquent views and attitudes — mediate a impact of programs on long-term
- Are there cost assets attributable to drug justice programs?
Read a finish reports:
- The Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation: Executive Summary (pdf, 16 pages)
- The Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation: Study Overview and Design, Volume 1 (pdf, 293 pages)
- The Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation: What’s Happening with Drug Courts? A Portrait of Adult Drug Courts in 2004, Volume
2 (pdf, 143 pages)
- The Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation: The Drug Courts Experience Volume 3 (pdf,140 pages)
- The Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation: The Impact of Drug Courts, Volume 4 (pdf, 367 pages)
Final Technical Report: Neighborhoods, Recidivism, and Employment Among Returning Prisoners
Authors: Jeffrey D. Morenoff and David J. Harding
This investigate examined a change of village context on a labor-market outcomes and recidivism of former prisoners paroled
in Michigan in 2003. The investigate found area facilities were clever predictors of recidivism and labor-market outcomes.
No singular cause creates a area a “risky” sourroundings for parolees. Neighborhood socioeconomic combination was a strong
predictor of labor-market outcomes since parolees who lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods had problem removing employment
and evading poverty. The many strong protecting cause for recidivism was vital in a residentially quick neighborhood;
a many strong risk cause for recidivism was vital in neighborhoods with aloft densities of immature people. Carefully evaluating
a parolee’s area when commendatory new housing sites competence urge outcomes. Other measures could embody fixation institutional
housing for former prisoners in some-more advantaged neighborhoods, and inclusion of area context in risk comment to
urge targeting services to former prisoners vital in high-risk neighborhoods.
Jihad, Crime, and a Internet: Content Analysis of Jihadist Forum Discussions
Authors: Edna Erez, Gabriel Weimann, and A. Aaron Weisburd
This investigate presents quantitative and qualitative assessments of a calm of communications in a forum discussions on
Jihadist websites that are of many regard to U.S. counterterrorism efforts. The study’s commentary uncover that many Jihadist
online forum discussions are brief, engage few participants from a purebred forum members, and embody few entries and
pages. Forum participants mostly impute viewers to an authorized website and share genuine Jihadist multimedia. References and
quotes from eremite sources are common. Just over one-third of a discussions embody calls for Jihad, and 3 percent
of a communications plead nonterrorist bootleg activities, generally computer-related and software-related offenses.
The forum discussions embody 4 categories of content: information dissemination, eremite preaching, instruction or training,
and amicable interactions. These calm categories support 3 core activities of a militant organization: ideological
foundation, organizational structure, and operational means.
A Model of Static and Dynamic Sex Offender Risk Assessment
Authors: Robert J. McGrath, Michael P. Lasher, and Georgia F. Cumming
This investigate tested models that total immobile and energetic risk measures that competence envision passionate recidivism for adult male
sex offenders softened than any one magnitude alone. The investigate found that a logistic retrogression indication that total measures from
both energetic and immobile risk instruments consistently likely recidivism and outperformed possibly instrument alone when both
instruments had matching predictive power. Static risk factors are unchangeable aspects of a person’s history, since dynamic
risk factors are potentially changeable. Risk-needs instruments assistance diagnosis providers in determining a aspects of an offender’s
behavior, attitudes and needs (dynamic factors) that are receptive to change that leads to a diminution or rejecting of
reoffending. This investigate arguable that assessing energetic risk factors frequently competence assistance providers adjust a intensity
and generation of interventions. The investigate enclosed a representation of 759 adult masculine sex offenders enrolled in village treatment
in Vermont between 2001 and 2007. These offenders were assessed once regulating immobile measures (Static-99R, Static-2002R and VASOR)
formed on their history. A 22-item energetic risk measures comment (Sex Offender Treatment Needs and Progress Scale) was used
mixed times to cruise participants shortly after their entrance into village diagnosis and about any 6 months after that.
Analyses of a energetic comment scores resulted in building a new energetic risk measure, a Sex Offender Treatment Intervention
and Progress Scale (SOTIPS), that was used during 1-year and 3-year follow-up periods.
Read a finish news A Model of Static and Dynamic Sex Offender Risk Assessment (pdf, 96 pages)
CODIS STR Template Enrichment by Affinity Bead Capture and Its Application in Forensic DNA Analysis
Authors: Diane J. Rowold, Rachel E. Balsam, and Michael C. Jablecki
This plan sought to adjust and try a front-end diagnosis of a debate sample, a DNA representation that is not now amenable
to required methods, to urge a probability that such samples could be evaluated with now certified approaches. Forensic
investigations that engage suboptimal DNA samples are mostly hampered by deficient or obscure Combined DNA Index System
(CODIS) STR profiles. This plan grown a slight that allows for a multiplex constraint and PCR loudness of CODIS-specific
STR loci. Recovered DNA materials from degraded DNA samples or significantly fragmented DNA samples were assessed by a comparative
investigate of a 13 dynamic CODIS STR loci and a amelogenin and D2S1338 STR loci. Analysis of prisoner DNA samples did
not deliver some-more artifacts that competence mystify CODIS STR analysis.
Decrease a Number of Contract Laboratory Cases Awaiting Data Review While Improving DNA Analysis Efficiency
Authors: Vincent J. Anderson and Jeff Thompson
The objectives of this plan were to urge DNA investigate potency for cases managed by a Los Angeles Police Department
and to diminution a array of agreement laboratory DNA cases available information review, with a concentration on passionate attack cases. As
of Sep 30, 2011, box turnaround time increasing from 71 days to 108 days for smoothness of a final report, since of
comparison cases in a reserve and a change in stating dates. The samples per researcher per month increasing 82 percent, and the
reserve of requests for DNA investigate decreased about 52 percent. LAPD crew were means to investigate a slight for spermatozoa
marker and descent regulating Laser Micro dissection. As of Sep 30, 2011, LAPD has reviewed 2,865 reports from
outward vendors underneath a grant. Those reviews have led to 1,705 cases with during slightest one CODIS upload and 895 cases with at
slightest one Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) hit. This extend stemmed from LAPD’s need to upload subcontractor DNA profiles
into a CODIS database in a timely and fit demeanour while still permitting time to set adult DNA investigate potency measures.
Development of an Automated System to Detect Spermatozoa on Laboratory Slides to Increase Productivity in a Analysis of
Sexual Assault Cases
Authors: Wendy P. Alger, Trisha Conti, and Eric Buel
The idea of this plan was to rise an programmed complement for detecting spermatozoa on laboratory slides to boost productivity
in estimate justification in passionate attack cases.
The scanning time for spermatozoa on laboratory slides softened from 2 hours to an normal of 20 minutes. The project’s first
proceed was to use a splendid margin microscope. The plan shortly stretched to review dual splendid margin microscopes to learn
that worked better. Researchers also tested regulating florescent dyes or florescently tagged antibodies specific to tellurian sperm
cells for observation with a florescent microscope. This supposing a quick shade of intensity spermatazoa cells underneath florescence with
a ability to switch to splendid margin to brand a sperm. Both programmed microscopy systems enclosed a microscope, a stage
that reason mixed slides, a mechanism complement to slight a images, and a shade for observation a picture gallery. The systems
could indicate regulating splendid margin or florescence. The programmed splendid margin microscopes brand a spermatazoa by regulating a camera
to constraint a images of any intent seen on a slide. The mechanism processes these images and judges (by a size, shape
and color) either a intent is a spermatazoa cell.
Development of Linkage Phase Analysis Software for solution mtDNA Mixtures
Author: Phillip B. Danielson
This plan grown and tested program for automating investigate of electrophoretic information required to learn a haplotypes
of sold contributors to a mtDNA mixture. The program (FLiPARS 2.0) good automates a slight of mtDNA mixture
deconvolution by linkage proviso analysis. The stream recover of FLiPARS 2.0 has been successfully run on several Windows,
Mac OS, and Linux handling systems.
Establishment of a Fast and Accurate Proteomic Method for Body Fluid/Cell Type Identification
Authors: Mechthild Prinz, Yingying Tang, Donald Siegel, Heyi Yang, Bo Zhou, and Haiteng Deng
The design of this plan was to establish either a single, assenting methodology, regulating mass spectrometry could be
grown for identifying 5 forensically critical physique fluids. The fluids are blood, saliva, semen, menstrual blood and
vaginal fluid. Researchers identified mixed protein markers for any physique fluid. The formula of these efforts uncover the
value of mass spectrometry as a slight apparatus for physique liquid identification. Multiple markers were identified for blood, saliva
and semen. Detection levels for these 3 physique fluids were in a nanoliter range, that is reduce than other methods currently
used. Body liquid mixtures could be distinguished, and aging for adult to 20 months did not significantly impact representation detection.
In addition, rough formula uncover that all 3 physique fluids are fair to high throughput testing. These commentary show
that mass spectrometry can be used as a singular assenting body-fluid exam that could reinstate a stream exam methods.
This would facilitate standardization for physique liquid contrast opposite laboratories.
Forensic Stain Identification by RT-PCR Analysis (Updated)
Authors: Trisha Conti and Eric Buel
This news describes a slight and commentary of a plan that grown a RNA/DNA co-isolation technique that extracts both
nucleic acids of adequate peculiarity and apportion for analyses. The project’s initial idea was to brand a best slight to co-extract
DNA and RNA from several mark types. By regulating one descent step, a DNA representation would be prepared for STR profiling if a RNA
screening exam judged it estimable of such analysis. In addition, removing RNA and DNA from a singular mark would benefaction the
probability of sketch conclusions about a temperament of one mark that competence not reason loyal for a circuitously stain. A opposite sample
bank was used to cruise a specificity of a claimant tissue-specific genes. Researchers found that DNA and RNA can be
co-extracted and a RNA fragment can be used in multiplexed real-time PCR assays.
Read a finish news Forensic Stain Identification By RT-PCR Analysis (Updated) (pdf, 88 pages)
Fundamentals of Forensic Pigment Identification by Raman Microspectroscopy: A Practical Identification Guide and Spectral
Library for Forensic Science Laboratories
Authors: Christopher S. Palenik, Skip Palenik, Jennifer Herb, and Ethan Groves
This plan conducted simple investigate in Raman spectroscopy that is indispensable to start an investigate of a intensity benefits
and evidentiary stress that Raman spectroscopy can yield to a debate community. Raman pinch uses a laser
that is focused on a sample. A tiny fragment of this appetite is sparse by molecules in a sample. As a result, a scattered
photons have shifted in appetite by an volume evil of a sold molecular vibration. The sparse light is collected
by an design (in a microscope system), projected onto a diffraction harsh (in a dispersive system), and projected onto
an energy-calibrated CCD. The ensuing spectrum is totalled in call numbers relations to a appetite of a laser. Developing
Raman microspectroscopy has non-stop a new proceed in identifying pigments in a unchanging and arguable manner. The speed,
tiny representation credentials requirements, and appetite to brand a far-reaching operation of compounds advise that Raman spectroscopy will
benefit some-more and some-more use in debate laboratories as applications are developed. This plan grown a many consummate spectral
colouring database that now exists. It dynamic that analyzed pigments were unchanging with their labels. Also, it developed
an design peculiarity index for ranking a colouring sample. It also grown a colouring sequence intrigue that enables interpretation
of colouring evidence, and total a stream primer for debate practitioners as a beam for a growth and use of Raman
spectroscopy as an methodical slight in debate laboratories.
An Investigation of a Effect of DNA Degradation and Inhibition on PCR Amplification of Single-Source and Mixed Forensic
Authors: Bruce McCord, Kerry Opel, Maribel Funes, Silvia Zoppis, and Lee Meadows Jantz
This investigate examined a mechanisms for PCR predicament and plunge as good as their effects on debate DNA typing,
that could lead to building some-more supportive and strong methodical protocols. Based on a results, a researchers infer
that environmental repairs to DNA in hankie samples occurs fast in reaching a state in that DNA becomes scarcely unrecoverable.
The template in such samples breaks down to tiny pieces in as tiny as three weeks. The effects of oxidative repairs on such
samples, however, were slight. No burning of DNA bases was found for environmentally degraded DNA, nonetheless it was present
in spit samples.
Isolation of Highly Specific Protein Markers for a Identification of Biological Stains: Adapting Comparative Proteomics
Author: Phillip B. Danielson
This investigate compared a proteomic profiles (proteins benefaction in a substance) of 6 physique fluids of sold value to the
debate community. The idea was to brand a row of high-specificity claimant protein biomarkers for sold body
fluids. Although DNA profiling allows biological stains to be individualized, a evident marker of a stain
itself can benefaction debate serologists with a poignant challenge. For example, there is no arguable exam for vaginal secretions,
and tests for blood can't heed marginal from menstrual blood. Such information can be critical to an investigation.
A endless row of claimant biomarkers was constructed and characterized by mass spectrometry. Confirming a specificity
of these claimant biomarkers in a incomparable race group, and regulating debate casework samples will be a subsequent stairs in
building a practitioners-ready high-specificity exam for biological mark identification.
MicroCantilever (MC)-based Robust Sensing Approach for Controlled Substances
Authors: George Kraus, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya, Kyungho Kang, Aaron Kempema, and Ashish Sachan
This investigate news introduced a use of MicroCantilever-based sensors for debate showing and marker of controlled
substances, poisonous species, biological molecules and DNA matching. Current sensor systems need endless representation preparation
or specialized orchestration to brand molecules of tranquil substances (such as cocaine) with high specificity and
sensitivity. The researchers sought to overcome a boundary of stream sensor systems by building a novel intuiting approach
formed on MicroCantilever sensors. To uncover a feasibility and debate aptitude of their approach, a authors developed
sensors for supportive and specific marker of cocaine, heroin metabolites, and methamphetamine and metabolites.
Population Genetics of SNPs for Forensic Purposes (Updated)
Author: Kenneth K. Kidd
The goals of this plan were to urge dual rough panels of singular nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. These includ
SNPs with globally low Fst and high normal heterozygosity for use in sold marker and SNPs with globally high
Fst and during slightest assuage normal heterozygosity for use in stock inference. The initial row would yield ostracism probabilities
or compare probabilities for sold marker with generally low coherence on ancestry. The second row would provide
accurate specificity of biological stock for debate investigation. The researchers identified a sufficient array of
SNPs for sold marker (IISNPs) regulating their singular collection of dungeon lines on race samples from around
a world. The researchers identified and published a row of 92 best SNPs complicated on 44 race samples. These SNPs have
both low Fst (less than 0.06) and high heterozygosity (greater than 0.4). Of these, 45 SNPs have no genetic linkage and yield
normal compare probabilities of reduction than 10 to a -17 appetite in many of a 44 populations and reduction than 10 to a -15 power
in all. The researchers cruise a IISNP row to be final and have done open a list of IISNPs.
Read a finish news Population Genetics of SNPs for Forensic Purposes (Updated) (pdf, 103 pages)
Synthesis and Analytical Profiles for Regioisomeric and Isobaric Amines Related to MDMA, MDEA and MBDB: Differentiation of
Drug and Non-Drug Substances of Mass Spectral Equivalence
Author: C. Randall Clark
The extended idea of this investigate was to urge specificity in a methodical methods used to brand MDMA, MBDB, MDEA and
compared phenethylamine tranquil substances. This plan has grown methods for cultured between a drugs and
those regioisomeric and isobaric molecules that have a same molecular weight and vital fragments of homogeneous mass (i.e.,
matching mass spectra). The plan stressed a methodical methods ordinarily used in debate laboratories for confirmation
of drug identity: gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS), and infrared spectrometry. When there are compounds that
furnish a same mass spectrum as a drug of interest, a marker by GC-MS contingency be formed on a ability of a chromatographic
complement to solve these substances. The initial proviso of this work concerned a organic singularity of a approach regioisomeric
substances compared to MDMA, MBDB and MDEA. Also prepared were deputy samples of a surreptitious regioisomeric molecules
and a isobaric substances, compounds of a same favoured mass though with a opposite component composition. Additional compounds
were prepared in compared categories to serve labour a grown methodical methods. Overall, usually over 90 phenethylamines
carrying a regioisomeric or isobaric attribute to MDMA or MBDB have been synthesized and evaluated. The chromatographic retention
properties for any array of isomers have been evaluated by GC techniques on several still phases, synthesized, and
evaluated. These studies dynamic a structure-retention attribute (elution orders) for a side sequence regioisomers and
a isobaric amines on several still phases.
Read a finish news Synthesis and Analytical Profiles for Regioisomeric and Isobaric Amines Related to MDMA, MDEA and MBDB: Differentiation of
Drug and Non-Drug Substances of Mass Spectral Equivalence (pdf, 301 pages)
Shifting Boundaries: Final Report on an Experimental Evaluation of a Youth Dating Violence Prevention Program in New York
City Middle Schools
Authors: Bruce Taylor, Nan D. Stein, Dan Woods, and Elizabeth Mumford
This examination assessed a efficacy of targeting a immature assembly with classroom-based curriculums and school-level
interventions. The authors incidentally reserved school-based interventions to 30 open center schools in New York City and identified
117 sixth and seventh class classes during pointless to accept total classroom interventions. The classroom involvement was a six-session
curriculum that stressed a effects of dating attack and harassment, laws and penalties, gender roles and healthy relationships.
The building-based involvement enclosed a use of proxy school-based confining orders. It also featured aloft levels
of expertise and confidence participation in areas identified by tyro mapping of vulnerable “hot spots,” and a use of posters
to boost recognition and stating to propagandize personnel. Quantitative surveys were finished during baseline, immediately after
a intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. They enclosed measures of knowledge, attitudes, behavioral aims, willingness
to meddle as a bystander, counterpart and dating partner earthy and passionate violence, passionate nuisance and other background
items. Qualitative concentration groups were conducted with interventionists and students to yield context to cruise intervention
doing and tyro change compared with a interventions. The total classroom and building interventions, and
a “building only” intervention, led to 32-47 percent reduce counterpart passionate attack victimization and perpetration adult to six
months after a intervention. The success of a building usually involvement is critical since it can be finished in schools
with tiny total costs.
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