Media Detective

Evidence Rating:
Promising – One examine Promising - One study

Program Goals/Target Population
Media Detective is a media preparation preparation and piece use impediment module for third by fifth category students. The idea of a module is to forestall or check a conflict of underage ethanol and tobacco use by augmenting students’ vicious meditative skills about media messages, quite those compared to ethanol and tobacco products, and to inspire healthy beliefs and attitudes about abstaining from piece use.

Program Theory
On average, youths between a ages of 8 and 18 spend some-more than 7½ hours a day concerned with media activities, such as examination television, listening to music, and personification video games (Rideout, Foehr, and Roberts 2010). Youths mostly are unprotected to many media messages that publicize unsure and diseased behaviors, including piece use. Media preparation preparation programs, such as Media Detective, are designed to urge youths’ abilities to deconstruct media messages so they can know a underlying impressive elements and rise doubt about advertisements that try to send certain messages about certain behaviors such as ethanol and tobacco use. The module intends for students to request those vicious meditative and deconstruction skills in bland life and to inspire students to stop and consider before usurpation media messages.

The module is formed on a Message Interpretation Process (MIP) Model, that provides a horizon for bargain a cognitive processes compared with a interpretation of media messages. The MIP Model, used in a pattern of a Media Detective program, draws on amicable cognitive theory, dual-process theories of opinion change, and a speculation of reasoned movement to illustrate how people use media messages in their decision-making routine about certain topics such as piece use. According to a MIP Model, people request both tension and proof to their estimate of media messages. Messages that seem some-more relatable and picturesque to an individual’s life and use are some-more expected to change decisions in ways that are unchanging with a summary content. For example, if a summary about ethanol or tobacco makes  these substances seem cool—and people know a summary as picturesque or identical to them—then a summary will be some-more expected to change individuals’ piece use.

Program Components
The Media Detective module has 10 lessons durability about 45 mins any that build cumulatively on one another. Each doctrine is scripted in a clergyman primer to promote module implementation. The module uses a investigator thesis to rivet students and learn vicious meditative skills. Students learn to demeanour for 5 “clues” when they perspective an advertisement: 1) a product being sold, 2) a aim assembly a advertisers are perplexing to attract, 3) a ad offshoot used to attract attention, 4) a dark message, or what a ad is suggesting will occur to a chairman who uses a product, and 5) a blank information about health consequences from regulating a product. Students not usually learn a clues and how to request them in their investigate of advertisements, though they also learn to yield a judicious motive for their responses.

Students initial learn to request these skills to deconstructing imitation advertisements for a far-reaching accumulation of products and afterwards work on deconstructing specific advertisements for ethanol and tobacco products. Students use deconstructing ads in whole category discussions, tiny organisation activities, and particular essay assignments. The curriculum culminates in a media advocacy activity in that any tyro creates a counter-ad. The classroom activities combine on dwindling students’ perceptions of a realism of ethanol and tobacco promotion messages compared with people and things that they know, with a idea of shortening their seductiveness in a squeeze or use of those substances.

Evaluation Outcomes

top borderStudy 1
Deconstruction Skills

Kupersmidt, Scull, and Austin (2010) found that there was a poignant disproportion in students’ posttest deconstruction skills. Students in a involvement group, who perceived a Media Detective program, were improved means than students in a control organisation to deconstruct advertisements. Fifth category students were significantly improved means than third and fourth category students to deconstruct advertisements. Students who had never used ethanol and tobacco were also significantly improved means to deconstruct advertisements, compared with students who had used these substances before.

Understanding of Persuasive Intent
There were also poignant differences in a posttest scores measuring bargain of impressive intent. Students in a involvement organisation were improved means to know impressive vigilant than students in a control group. Fifth graders had significantly improved bargain of impressive vigilant than third graders, though not fourth graders.

Interest in Alcohol-Branded Merchandise
There were no poignant differences in students’ posttest scores measuring seductiveness in alcohol-branded sell between a involvement and control groups. Boys in a involvement organisation were significantly reduction meddlesome in alcohol-branded sell than boys in a control organisation and girls in both groups. Students who had never used ethanol or tobacco products before were significantly reduction meddlesome in alcohol-branded sell than students who had used before.

Intentions to Use Alcohol and Tobacco
There were no poignant differences between a involvement and control groups on measures of intentions to use ethanol and tobacco. Students who had never used ethanol or tobacco in a past were significantly reduction expected to news intentions to use in a future, when compared with students who had used ethanol and tobacco before. Among students who had used ethanol and tobacco, students in a involvement organisation were significantly reduction expected to news intentions to use in a destiny than students in a control group. Among students who had not attempted ethanol or tobacco in a past, there were no poignant differences between a involvement and control groups.

bottom border

Evaluation Methodology

top borderStudy 1
Kupersmidt, Scull, and Austin (2010) evaluated a module efficacy of Media Detective regulating a randomized tranquil hearing in 12 facile schools located in 5 executive North Carolina propagandize districts. Schools were incidentally reserved to a involvement or control organisation after identical to attend in a examine by regulating a random-number generator. In total, 49 third, fourth, and fifth category classes participated, with 22 in a involvement organisation and 27 in a control group. This resulted in a sum representation of 344 students in a involvement organisation and 335 students in a control group. Students were 51 percent womanlike and ranged from 7 to 13 years old. Approximately 17 percent of students had attempted ethanol or tobacco. The involvement and control groups did not significantly differ in terms of gender and prior knowledge with ethanol and tobacco. The involvement organisation had a incomparable suit of fifth graders; a control organisation had a incomparable suit of third graders.

Students in a involvement classes perceived a 10-day Media Detective program, while students in a control organisation perceived normal classroom material. Pretests and posttests were administered to students approximately 2 weeks apart. The primary outcome magnitude of seductiveness was goal to use ethanol or tobacco, totalled by 8 equipment on 4-point beam trimming from 0 (definitely will not) to 3 (definitely will). Four equipment asked about ethanol use intentions, and 4 equipment asked about tobacco use intentions. Other outcome measures enclosed deconstruction skills, bargain of impressive intent, seductiveness in alcohol-branded merchandise, and self-efficacy. Deconstruction skills were totalled by students’ deconstruction of an ethanol imitation advertisement. Individual students’ scores were taken as an normal of any of a 3 lerned coders’ scores for that student. Understanding impressive vigilant was totalled with 3 items, with response beam trimming from 0 (never) to 5 (always). Six equipment totalled seductiveness in alcohol-branded sell (e.g., a Corona fondle plane) compared with identical equipment with a soda product thesis (e.g., a Sprite fondle plane). Students indicated that they favourite some-more on a 5-point scale, with aloft scores indicating some-more seductiveness in alcohol-branded merchandise. Finally, self-efficacy was assessed by 4 equipment that totalled students’ feelings of personal control to exclude substances. Response beam ranged from 0 (never) to 5 (always), with aloft scores indicating larger self-efficacy.

Within-classroom heterogeneity was accounted for when assessing any outcome variable. Pretest scores for any outcome non-static were enclosed as predictor variables; therefore, outcome non-static averages are reported as practiced posttest scores. Hierarchical linear modeling, regulating intent-to-treat analyses, were used to examine differences in students’ outcome measures by regulating condition (intervention/control), category (third, fourth, fifth), gender (male/female), category by condition, gender by condition, and prior use by condition as eccentric variables.

One vital reduction to a examine is a follow-up period. The formula are formed on information collected from students dual weeks after they perceived a Media Detective intervention. More investigate is indispensable to examine a long-term effects of a program. Therefore, a formula should be interpreted with caution.

bottom border


top borderbottom border

Implementation Information

top borderbottom border

Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a module profile:

Study 1
Kupersmidt, Janis B., Tracy M. Scull, and Erica Weintraub Austin. 2010. “Media Literacy Education for Elementary School Substance Use Prevention: Study of Media Detective.” Pediatrics 126:525–31.

bottom border

Additional References

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a module profile:

Rideout, Victoria J., Ulla G. Foehr, and Donald F. Roberts. 2010. Generation M2: Media in a Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds. Menlo Park, Calif.: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Scull, Tracy M., and Janis B. Kupersmidt. 2011. “An Evaluation of a Media Literacy Program Training Workshop for Late Elementary School Teachers.” Journal of Media Literacy Education 2(3):199–208.

bottom border