No Effects – One investigate
Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence (SFA) is a endless girl growth module that unites educators, parents, and village members to assistance teenagers rise amicable skills and competencies for facing drug use. The module operates formed on 3 specific goals: 1) prevent or significantly check a arising of “gateway” (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana) drug use during a investigate period; 2) revoke a magnitude or volume of substances used by those who do trigger use before or during a investigate period; and 3) forestall or check a course to some-more “advanced” piece use (e.g., binge drinking, unchanging smoking, and unchanging pot use) or “hard” drug use. In sum, the module strives to foster a growth of capable, healthy immature people of clever impression in a propagandize sourroundings to forestall or check piece use.
Target Population/Eligibility or Target Sites
The module is designed for schoolwide classroom doing in grades 6–8 (ages 10–14).
SFA focuses on a growth of essential amicable and romantic competencies, good citizenship skills, clever certain character, skills and attitudes unchanging with a drug-free lifestyle, and an ethic of use to others within a caring and unchanging environment. Accordingly, module elements concentration on building self-respect and personal responsibility, communicating effectively, creation softened decisions, facing amicable influences and reporting rights, and augmenting drug use believe and consequences. The training indication employs inquiry, presentation, discussion, organisation work, guided practice, use learning, and thoughtfulness to accomplish a preferred outcomes. SFA has a five-component structure for addressing protecting factors that foster healthy, safe, and drug-free behaviors and risk factors for shortening piece use, violence, and other high-risk behaviors:
- Classroom curriculum of 102 skill-building lessons. Implementation models operation from a smallest 9-week, 40-lesson mini-course to a 3-year module of all 102 lessons; 45-minute lessons are organised in 8 consecutive thematic units and a service-learning section that extends via a curriculum.
- Parent and family involvement. Parents and families attend by common task assignments, 4 primogenitor meetings, a book for parents, and approach impasse in propagandize activities.
- Positive propagandize climate. School staff, students, parents, and village members settle a propagandize meridian cabinet to strengthen curriculum themes by schoolwide events.
- Community involvement. School staff, parents, Lions Clubs, and other use organizations attend in training workshops, propagandize meridian events, row discussions, use projects, and primogenitor meetings.
- Professional development. Each implementer contingency attend an rudimentary 2- or 3-day seminar to accept module materials.
Ongoing module success requires a propagandize district–level disciple and a district’s acceptance of financial responsibility, an onsite module coordinator, continued support for propagandize staff, and ongoing module evaluation. Funding from Lions Clubs and other sources is vital, as is appearance from relatives and village members.
The SFA program is designed regulating amicable change and social–cognitive approaches to learn cognitive–behavioral skills to youth—specifically, drug-refusal skills. Accordingly, elements and processes use techniques to strengthen students’ behavioral intentions not to use drugs in a nearby future, to boost a viewed mistreat of drug use, to boost a clarity of self-efficacy about their ability to exclude drugs, and to diminution perceptions that regulating drugs creates it easier to fit in. The module is formed on a speculation that these techniques will capacitate students to conflict counterpart vigour to use drugs, while concurrently compelling a some-more reliable propagandize environment.
Eisen and colleagues (2003) found churned formula among a several outcome measures formed on 1-year follow-up information of schools that perceived Skills for Adolescence (SFA) training in comparison to control schools. Results supposing justification of a program’s efficacy to revoke ethanol and pot use and boost behavioral skills to conflict these substances. However, there was a miss of justification for a program’s ability to revoke tobacco use or other unlawful substances.
Reported Alcohol Use
There were no important differences between SFA and control students in reported lifetime or new 30-day ethanol use. However, baseline binge drinkers in diagnosis schools were reduction expected to news new binge celebration during a finish of eighth class (27 percent) than students in control schools (37 percent).
Reported Tobacco Use
There were no important differences between SFA and control students in reported lifetime or new use of tobacco.
Reported Marijuana Use
SFA students had reduce reported rates of lifetime and new pot use relations to control schools, though this disproportion was not statistically significant.
Reported Other Illicit Substance Use
There were no important differences between SFA and control students in reported lifetime or new use of other unlawful substances.
Improvements in Resistance Behaviors
SFA students reported poignant certain effects on refusal offers of pot and alcohol, though not for cigarettes or cocaine. For SFA students, knowledge, awareness, and attitudes about a risks of ethanol and other drug use softened 43 percent. Further, center city SFA youths had aloft expectations for success in propagandize than control students. Lastly, SFA students’ expectations of destiny use of drink and wine were significantly reduce than those of non-SFA students.
Dr. Marvin Eisen of a Urban Institute in Washington, D.C. and colleagues (2003) conducted a longitudinal randomized tranquil hearing of Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence (SFA) for a National Institute on Drug Abuse to consider a program’s efficacy in deterring and loitering students’ piece use by center propagandize in comparison to common drug preparation programming. Thirty-four center schools were comparison for a investigate during a tumble and winter of 1997–1998, including schools in Baltimore, Md.; Detroit, Mich.; Los Angeles, Calif.; and Washington, D.C. The representation race totaled 7,426 sixth graders, and a baseline consult was conducted with all actively consented sixth graders in any propagandize in a open of 1998. Based on a survey’s results, schools were pair-matched within any district, formed on reported superiority of any new (within a before 30 days) piece use (tobacco, alcohol, or other unlawful drugs). Accordingly, schools were divided into a diagnosis organisation and a control group, any comprising 17 schools. The investigate conspirator in a 17 involvement schools perceived usually SFA as their seventh-grade drug preparation during a 1998–1999 propagandize year, while their counterparts in a 17 comparison schools perceived their common drug preparation programming. The comparison programs, that were generally left to a option of teachers in any school, ranged from propagandize assemblies, to internal teacher–devised classroom curricula, to DARE exposure.
To guard a program’s progress, 1-year posttest information (baseline to finish of a involvement propagandize year) was collected from 6,239 seventh graders in May and Jun of 1999. One-year follow-up information (i.e., 1 year post-intervention) were collected during a finish of eighth grade, in May and Jun of 2000. To consider justification of a program’s effectiveness, 1-year follow-up information was used to examination drug use outcomes between SFA and control schools from open of 1998 by open of 2000. Initiation of “ever” and “recent” use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other bootleg substances (“any other” drugs, including inhalants and heroin or crack) for baseline nonusers and changes in new use for baseline were compared regulating mixed-model regressions to control for propagandize clustering. “Ever” was tangible as carrying ever used a piece in one’s lifetime, while “recent” was tangible as use within 30 days before to information collection. In further to these measures, ethanol use rates were totalled by a occurrence of new binge celebration (three or some-more drinks during one time in a before 30 days). Alcohol, tobacco, and bootleg drug use superiority rates were assessed by a set of customary equipment that was modified, when necessary, following pretesting with a aim population. Use of any piece was measured, with equipment carrying five- to seven-point ordinal response categories (e.g., “never” or “none” to “more than 100 cigarettes [more than 5 packs]”). These ordinal indicators of lifetime and new piece use were afterwards recoded to 0=no/1=yes response categories.
The investigate also totalled intensity changes in behavioral and refusal skills by assessing students’ behavioral intentions to use drugs, amicable influences and interpersonal perceptions, notice of damaging drug effects, and communication skills and self-efficacy per drug use refusal. Behavioral intentions to use tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and heroin in a following 3 months were assessed regulating several equipment per such intentions (1=definitely approbation to 4=definitely no). Social change and interpersonal perceptions were assessed regulating customary questions on students’ normative beliefs about a superiority of piece use by a best crony (yes/no/I don’t know), friends in general, and same-grade peers (1=all to 5=none), as good as a three-item scale on either regulating alcohol, cigarettes, and pot creates it easier to ‘‘fit in’’ (1=strongly determine to 5=strongly disagree). Perceptions of a damaging or useful effects of alcohol, binge drinking, smoking, marijuana, and heroin were assessed with three-item beam focusing on either any piece helps or harms one’s health, ability to relax, and recognition (1=very useful to 4=very harmful). Students’ clarity of self-efficacy in refusing alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and heroin in several situations (e.g., “ … how easy or tough would it be to contend ‘no’ to pot if we are during celebration with friends/at tighten friend’s house—no relatives home/hanging out with friends after school—not during someone’s house?”) was totalled regulating apart three-item scales. These equipment were grown after clever examination and calm research of a SFA communication and insurgency skills classroom curriculum and role-play exercises used in a 8 pivotal sessions.
adult contingency finish an rudimentary 2- or 3-day veteran development
training to accept Skills for Adolescence (SFA) module materials. An endless 10-day training-of-trainers
program is accessible to competent propagandize districts. Preset informal workshops
scheduled by SFA and onsite
contract workshops are also available.
Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)
These sources were used in a growth of a module profile:
Eisen, Marvin, Gail L. Zellman, and David M. Murray. 2003. “Evaluating a Lions–Quest ‘Skills for Adolescence’ Drug Education Program: Second-Year Behavior Outcomes.” Addictive Behaviors 28(5):883–97.