Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:
Attitudes Beliefs – Bystander EfficacyAttitudes Beliefs – Rape Supportive Attitudes (Rape Myths)Attitudes Beliefs – Intent to HelpVictimization – Actual Helping Behavior
Bystander preparation programs for passionate attack impediment on college campuses aim would-be bystanders (i.e., witnesses) of passionate attack rather than victims or perpetrators. These programs are designed to diminution a superiority of passionate attack on college campuses by educating participants about a occurrence of passionate assault, as good as compelling prosocial attitudes and a eagerness to meddle in unsure situations. Additionally, these programs might muster a village to commend their shortcoming in compelling safety. While bystander preparation programs might differ from one another, they share common components and a common aim to revoke passionate assault.
Practice Components/Target Population
In all programs, bystanders are tangible as third-party witnesses and are targeted for appearance given they could be intensity allies or helpers to those being intimately assaulted. Although participants might embody both organisation and women, a programs typically engage single-sex groups.
Overall, these programs concentration on 3 categorical aspects: 1) training participants about passionate attack to make them wakeful of unsure situations, 2) lenient participants so they feel like they can assistance others, and 3) providing participants with skills to foster reserve via their community. The module is facilitated by lerned peers who not usually offer as certain purpose models, though also learn participants about a superiority of passionate attack on their campuses, indicators of unsure situations, how they can meddle in a specific situation, and how they can foster reserve some-more generally. In cases where participants overhear intimately spiritless comments—or are approached by a plant who shares such information—they are taught how to support a victim.
Attitudes Beliefs – Bystander Efficacy
Aggregating a formula from 6 studies, Katz and Moore (2013) found a statistically poignant altogether meant outcome distance of 0.486 for bystander efficacy. This outcome suggests that participants in bystander preparation programs felt some-more assured in their ability to meddle in a passionate attack conditions than those who did not attend in such programs. Attitudes Beliefs – Rape Supportive Attitudes (Rape Myths)
Katz and Moore (2013) examined a formula from 11 studies and found that bystander preparation programs reduced rape-supportive attitudes. Specifically, a authors found a small, nonetheless statistically poignant meant outcome distance of -0.276, suggesting that participants in bystander preparation programs were reduction expected to reason rape-supportive attitudes than participants in a comparison conditions. Attitudes Beliefs – Intent to Help
Aggregating a formula from 5 studies, Katz and Moore (2013) found a statistically poignant impact of bystander preparation programs on participants’ intentions to assistance as bystanders in passionate attack situations. Specifically, a altogether meant outcome distance was 0.579, display that participants in bystander preparation programs had aloft intentions of assisting as a bystander than people in a comparison condition. Victimization – Actual Helping Behavior
Examining a formula from 3 studies, Katz and Moore (2013) found that bystander preparation programs had a small, nonetheless statistically poignant impact on tangible bystander assisting behavior. Specifically, a authors found a statistically poignant meant outcome distance of 0.227, suggesting that participants in bystander preparation programs were some-more expected to vaunt bystander assisting function than those in a comparison condition.
Katz and Moore (2013) evaluated a efficiency of bystander preparation programs on shortening passionate attack on college campuses. The meta-analysis was limited to embody bystander programs on college campuses that recruited people by coming them as allies in a impediment of passionate assault. Moreover, during slightest some partial of a module had to learn participants on how to assistance revoke others’ risk of passionate attack and/or sight participants on how to support a plant of passionate assault. To brand studies, specific keywords associated to passionate attack impediment were used to hunt bibliographic databases. Studies were also located by internet searches and contacting authors for copies of unpublished studies or studies that were not nonetheless accessible online. Relevant journals in village psychology, prevention, and interpersonal attack were also searched, and bibliographies of studies were screened to locate other applicable studies.
To be authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis, a investigate had to embody North American college students who attended a bystander preparation module for passionate attack prevention. The investigate also had to yield quantitative information on a applicable outcomes, that enclosed bystander efficacy, rape-supportive attitudes, vigilant to help, rape proclivity, bystander assisting behaviors, and perpetration behaviors. Bystander efficiency was associated to how efficient people felt in responding to passionate attack risk. Rape-supportive attitudes focused on acceptance of rape misconceptions (for example, agreement with statements like “if a lady doesn’t physically quarrel back, we can’t unequivocally contend that it was rape”). Intent to assistance totalled how expected an particular would be to assistance in a passionate attack situation. Bystander assisting function totalled tangible instances of enchanting in bystander assisting function given a commencement of a program. Data on these outcome variables had to be collected during pretest and posttest, and compared with a comparison or control organisation that did not accept a bystander preparation program.
The hunt yielded 41 intensity studies. Of these 41 studies, 12 studies met a inclusion criteria and were enclosed in a meta-analysis. The 12 studies enclosed 10 that used pointless assignment and 2 that used a quasi-experimental design, and supposing 32 outcome sizes. The studies were conducted between 1997 and 2011 and had a sum representation distance of 2,926 participants. The sum representation distance comprised 1,474 diagnosis participants (i.e., those in bystander preparation programs) and 1,474 comparison/control individuals. The normal age of participants was approximately 19, and about 66.7 percent of participants were men. All preparation programs were conducted in same-sex groups, and, on average, a programs lasted 140 minutes.
To investigate a impact of bystander preparation programs on passionate attack prevention, a pointless effects indication was used. Each investigate outcome was weighted and afterwards total to emanate a outline outcome size, also famous as a standardised meant difference.
Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)
These sources were used in a growth of a use profile:
Katz, Jennifer, and Jessica Moore. 2013. “Bystander Education Training for Campus Sexual Assault Prevention: An Initial Meta-Analysis.” Violence and Victims 28(6):1054–1067.
Following are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated programs that are associated to this practice:
Bringing in a Bystander
The idea of a module is to boost bystander recognition of passionate and insinuate partner attack and enhance an individual’s clarity of shortcoming to assistance forestall and meddle in instances of passionate and insinuate partner violence. The module was rated Promising. The module softened believe of rape parable acceptance, and bystander attitude, behavior, and efficiency among module participants, compared with nonparticipants.
The Women’s Program
This is a passionate attack risk-reduction module that is designed to learn college women bystanders about passionate assault, characteristics of masculine perpetrators, and how to intervene. This module is rated Promising. Confidence in a ability and eagerness to meddle increasing significantly for a initial group. However, acceptance of common “rape myths” did not differ between a control and initial groups.