Bystander Education Programs for Sexual Assault Prevention on College Campuses

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Promising - One Meta-AnalysisAttitudes Beliefs – Bystander EfficacyPromising - One Meta-AnalysisAttitudes Beliefs – Rape Supportive Attitudes (Rape Myths)Promising - One Meta-AnalysisAttitudes Beliefs – Intent to HelpPromising - One Meta-AnalysisVictimization – Actual Helping Behavior

Practice Goals
Bystander preparation programs for passionate attack impediment on college campuses aim would-be bystanders (i.e., witnesses) of passionate attack rather than victims or perpetrators. These programs are designed to diminution a superiority of passionate attack on college campuses by educating participants about a occurrence of passionate assault, as good as compelling prosocial attitudes and a eagerness to meddle in unsure situations. Additionally, these programs might muster a village to commend their shortcoming in compelling safety. While bystander preparation programs might differ from one another, they share common components and a common aim to revoke passionate assault.

Practice Components/Target Population
In all programs, bystanders are tangible as third-party witnesses and are targeted for appearance given they could be intensity allies or helpers to those being intimately assaulted. Although participants might embody both organisation and women, a programs typically engage single-sex groups.

Overall, these programs concentration on 3 categorical aspects: 1) training participants about passionate attack to make them wakeful of unsure situations, 2) lenient participants so they feel like they can assistance others, and 3) providing participants with skills to foster reserve via their community. The module is facilitated by lerned peers who not usually offer as certain purpose models, though also learn participants about a superiority of passionate attack on their campuses, indicators of unsure situations, how they can meddle in a specific situation, and how they can foster reserve some-more generally. In cases where participants overhear intimately spiritless comments—or are approached by a plant who shares such information—they are taught how to support a victim.

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

top borderPromising - One Meta-AnalysisAttitudes Beliefs – Bystander Efficacy
Aggregating a formula from 6 studies, Katz and Moore (2013) found a statistically poignant altogether meant outcome distance of 0.486 for bystander efficacy. This outcome suggests that participants in bystander preparation programs felt some-more assured in their ability to meddle in a passionate attack conditions than those who did not attend in such programs.
Promising - One Meta-AnalysisAttitudes Beliefs – Rape Supportive Attitudes (Rape Myths)
Katz and Moore (2013) examined a formula from 11 studies and found that bystander preparation programs reduced rape-supportive attitudes. Specifically, a authors found a small, nonetheless statistically poignant meant outcome distance of -0.276, suggesting that participants in bystander preparation programs were reduction expected to reason rape-supportive attitudes than participants in a comparison conditions.
Promising - One Meta-AnalysisAttitudes Beliefs – Intent to Help
Aggregating a formula from 5 studies, Katz and Moore (2013) found a statistically poignant impact of bystander preparation programs on participants’ intentions to assistance as bystanders in passionate attack situations. Specifically, a altogether meant outcome distance was 0.579, display that participants in bystander preparation programs had aloft intentions of assisting as a bystander than people in a comparison condition.
Promising - One Meta-AnalysisVictimization – Actual Helping Behavior
Examining a formula from 3 studies, Katz and Moore (2013) found that bystander preparation programs had a small, nonetheless statistically poignant impact on tangible bystander assisting behavior. Specifically, a authors found a statistically poignant meant outcome distance of 0.227, suggesting that participants in bystander preparation programs were some-more expected to vaunt bystander assisting function than those in a comparison condition. bottom border

Meta-Analysis Methodology

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Meta-Analysis 1
Katz and Moore (2013) evaluated a efficiency of bystander preparation programs on shortening passionate attack on college campuses. The meta-analysis was limited to embody bystander programs on college campuses that recruited people by coming them as allies in a impediment of passionate assault. Moreover, during slightest some partial of a module had to learn participants on how to assistance revoke others’ risk of passionate attack and/or sight participants on how to support a plant of passionate assault. To brand studies, specific keywords associated to passionate attack impediment were used to hunt bibliographic databases. Studies were also located by internet searches and contacting authors for copies of unpublished studies or studies that were not nonetheless accessible online. Relevant journals in village psychology, prevention, and interpersonal attack were also searched, and bibliographies of studies were screened to locate other applicable studies.

To be authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis, a investigate had to embody North American college students who attended a bystander preparation module for passionate attack prevention. The investigate also had to yield quantitative information on a applicable outcomes, that enclosed bystander efficacy, rape-supportive attitudes, vigilant to help, rape proclivity, bystander assisting behaviors, and perpetration behaviors. Bystander efficiency was associated to how efficient people felt in responding to passionate attack risk. Rape-supportive attitudes focused on acceptance of rape misconceptions (for example, agreement with statements like “if a lady doesn’t physically quarrel back, we can’t unequivocally contend that it was rape”). Intent to assistance totalled how expected an particular would be to assistance in a passionate attack situation. Bystander assisting function totalled tangible instances of enchanting in bystander assisting function given a commencement of a program. Data on these outcome variables had to be collected during pretest and posttest, and compared with a comparison or control organisation that did not accept a bystander preparation program.

The hunt yielded 41 intensity studies. Of these 41 studies, 12 studies met a inclusion criteria and were enclosed in a meta-analysis. The 12 studies enclosed 10 that used pointless assignment and 2 that used a quasi-experimental design, and supposing 32 outcome sizes. The studies were conducted between 1997 and 2011 and had a sum representation distance of 2,926 participants. The sum representation distance comprised 1,474 diagnosis participants (i.e., those in bystander preparation programs) and 1,474 comparison/control individuals. The normal age of participants was approximately 19, and about 66.7 percent of participants were men. All preparation programs were conducted in same-sex groups, and, on average, a programs lasted 140 minutes.

To investigate a impact of bystander preparation programs on passionate attack prevention, a pointless effects indication was used. Each investigate outcome was weighted and afterwards total to emanate a outline outcome size, also famous as a standardised meant difference.

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Cost

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Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Meta-Analysis 1
Katz, Jennifer, and Jessica Moore. 2013. “Bystander Education Training for Campus Sexual Assault Prevention: An Initial Meta-Analysis.” Violence and Victims 28(6):1054–1067.

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Related Programs

top borderFollowing are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated programs that are associated to this practice:

Bringing in a Bystander Promising - One study
The idea of a module is to boost bystander recognition of passionate and insinuate partner attack and enhance an individual’s clarity of shortcoming to assistance forestall and meddle in instances of passionate and insinuate partner violence. The module was rated Promising. The module softened believe of rape parable acceptance, and bystander attitude, behavior, and efficiency among module participants, compared with nonparticipants.

The Women’s Program Promising - One study
This is a passionate attack risk-reduction module that is designed to learn college women bystanders about passionate assault, characteristics of masculine perpetrators, and how to intervene. This module is rated Promising. Confidence in a ability and eagerness to meddle increasing significantly for a initial group. However, acceptance of common “rape myths” did not differ between a control and initial groups.

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Computerized Brief Interventions for Youth Alcohol Use

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Effective - One Meta-AnalysisDrugs Substance Abuse – Alcohol

Practice Goals
Computerized brief interventions embody surety or healing activities delivered by online or offline electronic inclination such as dungeon phones, tablets, and computers. Compared with brief interventions that are delivered by health professionals in brief healing sessions durability between 5 to 10 minutes, computerized brief interventions are delivered by an electronic device. Similar to brief interventions, computerized interventions are of brief generation and aim to make a people consider differently about their ethanol use, while also providing them with a skills to change their behavior. Overall, these interventions aim to revoke ethanol use by immature people (Smedslund et al. 2016). Specifically, by inserted early, computerized brief interventions find to revoke or discharge ethanol use among immature people before it takes control of their lives.

Target Population
Computerized brief interventions are designed to seductiveness to younger generations who have grown adult alongside digital media (Smedslund et al. 2016). Specifically, these interventions aim people aged 15 to 25, who are high or unsure consumers of ethanol though encouraged to change. Risky expenditure of ethanol is tangible as immoderate 1) during slightest 5 beverages during any one celebration event or some-more than 14 alcoholic beverages a week for males, and 2) 4 beverages during any one celebration event or some-more than 7 alcoholic beverages a week for females. Overall, it is believed that computerized brief interventions motivate users to consider differently about their ethanol use, and–for those encouraged to change–provide skills for behavioral change.

Practice Components
Typically, computerized brief interventions embody of 3 components: assessment, feedback, and decision-making. The assessment member classifies users as low-risk, medium-risk, high-risk, or really high-risk ethanol drinkers and provides a people with a recommendation on either they would advantage from a some-more formalized diagnosis module than a computerized brief intervention.

The feedback member provides a users with information on their scores after any comment and responds to their reactions to their assessment. Computerized interventions typically embody dual feedback components: targeted feedback and tailored feedback. Targeted feedback refers to providing information to users that pertains to a needs of a whole group; for example, in a box of computerized brief interventions for ethanol use, immature people with unsure ethanol use might accept messages to boost their recognition of a problem behavior. On a other hand, tailored feedback is feedback specific to an individual’s needs (Smedslund et al. 2016; Worden and McCrady 2013).

Finally, a decision-making component asks users to mention their proclivity for behavioral change. Individuals who prove willingness for change are supposing with a list of idea options. Once users name a idea option, they are led by exercises to rise an individualized devise of change and supposing with resources, including lists of self-help groups, lists of therapists, and other applicable materials. It is critical to note that people who do not prove a proclivity to change have a choice of receiving simple information on their behavioral problem; however, once this information is supposing a involvement ends.

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

top borderEffective - One Meta-AnalysisDrugs Substance Abuse – Alcohol
Overall, a investigate indicated that computerized brief interventions had a small, nonetheless statistically poignant impact on a ethanol expenditure of youths aged 15–25. Specifically, Smedslund and colleagues (2016) many-sided a formula of 15 studies (those that enclosed both comment and feedback components, though no decision-making component) and found a statistically poignant altogether meant outcome distance of -0.17, suggesting that computerized brief interventions reduced short-term ethanol consumption, compared with no intervention. bottom border

Meta-Analysis Methodology

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Meta-Analysis 1
Smedslund and colleagues (2016) analyzed a impact of computerized brief interventions on ethanol and cannabis use. The aim race enclosed individuals, aged 15–25, who are high or unsure consumers of one or both substances. Studies that did not exclusively concentration on high-risk, immature adult users of ethanol or cannabis were released from a review. To be authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis, studies had to be efficiency or efficacy studies of computerized brief involvement programs targeted during youths aged 15 to 25 years old. Eligible studies had to use pointless assignment or quasi-random assignment to a early computerized brief involvement or comparison condition. Comparison conditions could embody no intervention, wait-list control, or an choice brief intervention. Moreover, studies had to embody during slightest one of a primary outcomes of seductiveness (e.g., ethanol use or cannabis use). It is critical to note that this examination enclosed all forms of early, computerized brief interventions regardless of a form of electronic device. However, to be deliberate a brief intervention, a surety or healing activity had to be supposing within a limit of 4 structured therapy sessions that lasted between 5 and 10 mins with a limit sum time in diagnosis time of one hour. Additionally, studies that used computerized brief interventions to aim piece use in ubiquitous were released unless ethanol and cannabis use were analyzed separately.

Using this eligibility criteria, a hunt of bibliographic databases, websites, and grey novel was conducted. Studies were not singular to a English denunciation and could be ubiquitous in scope. The novel hunt resulted in 7,553 hits of that 7,111 resulted from a hunt of a electronic databases and 442 from a hunt for grey literature. After incompatible duplicates and screening titles and abstracts for applicable references, 60 studies met a eligibility criteria for review. Of these, 53 focused on ethanol use, 3 focused on cannabis use, and 4 focused on both ethanol and cannabis use.

The enclosed studies were published between 2004 and 2016, and 59 of a 60 studies were randomized tranquil trials (RCTs). The one investigate that did not use pointless assignment used a cluster-RCT instead. The infancy of a studies were conducted during colleges or universities (N = 51), while a remaining studies were conducted in a ubiquitous race (N = 5) and puncture departments (N = 4). Additionally, studies were predominately conducted in a United States (N = 44), while a others were conducted in New Zealand (N = 4), Sweden (N = 4), a Netherlands (N = 2), Australia (N = 2), Germany (N = 1), Switzerland (N = 1), and Brazil (N = 1). The meant age opposite a 60 studies varied, with a operation between 16.3 and 25.4 years. Similarly, a suit of whites in a enclosed studies ranged from between 13.3 percent and 99.6 percent. Finally, a generation of a involvement ranged from 0–10 mins in 7 studies, 11–20 mins in 13 studies, and 21–60 mins in 11 studies. Although 29 studies did not news a length of a intervention, it was dynamic that a outline of a involvement met a criteria for a brief intervention.

RevMan 5 program was used to perform meta-analysis regulating a general different opposite process when identical treatments were compared to identical comparators and identical outcomes were used during identical follow-up times. Given a approaching heterogeneity opposite a enclosed studies, pointless effects models were used to establish a efficacy of computerized brief interventions on ethanol and cannabis use.

However, nonetheless Smedslund and colleagues (2016) analyzed a impact of computerized brief interventions on ethanol and cannabis use, this CrimeSolutions.gov use examination usually focused on a impact of computerized brief interventions on ethanol use. Outcomes associated to cannabis use did not accommodate a mandate for examination due to a singular series of studies. In addition, a meta-analysis examined 9 subgroups, including (but not singular to) comment and feedback contra no intervention, mechanism feedback contra solicitor feedback, and feedback and mediation skills contra feedback only. However, a CrimeSolutions.gov use examination usually focused on a comment and feedback contra no involvement analysis.

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Cost

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Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Meta-Analysis 1
Smedslund, Geir, Sabine Wollscheid, Lin Fang, Wendy Nilsen, Asbjorn Steiro, and Lillebeth Larun. 2017. “Effects of Early, Computerized Brief Interventions on Risky Alcohol Use and Risky Cannabis Use Among Young People.” Campbell Collaboration 6.

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Additional References

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Worden, B.L., and B.S. McCrady. 2013. “Effectiveness of a Feedback-Based Brief Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Community Substance Use Disorders.” Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 31(186):186–205.

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YouthBuild Offender Program

Contingency Management Interventions for Substance Use Disorders
  

Effective - More than one Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: This is an involvement plan designed to revoke piece use disorders by rewarding certain function (e.g., disastrous drug tests) and self-denial rewards when undesired function is exhibited (e.g., certain drug screens). The altogether idea is avoidance from piece use. The use is rated Effective for shortening alcohol, tobacco, and unlawful drug use.

Prison Visitation for Incarcerated Adults
  

Promising - One Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: Prison visitation allows jailed people a event to accommodate with family and friends to means connectors and amicable supports. One of a categorical goals of jail visitation is to revoke recidivism of people once they are expelled from incarceration. The use is rated Promising for shortening recidivism of people who accept visits while incarcerated.

Police Body-Worn Cameras (Birmingham South, UK)
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: Police body-worn cameras are used to record military encounters with adults during officers’ shifts in Birmingham South. Officers were educated to start recording as shortly as they left their vehicles and to interpretation recording once a conditions was resolved. The module is rated Promising. There was a statistically poignant rebate in citizen injury, though no statistically poignant rebate in officer use of force and officer injury.

KEEP (Keeping Foster and Kinship Parents Supported and Trained)
  

Effective - More than one study

Program Summary: This a parent-training involvement for encourage and reciprocity relatives with a encourage child in a home ages 4 to 12, designed to revoke children’s problem behaviors by strengthening encourage parents’ skills. The module is rated Effective. The module was found to statistically significantly urge child problem behaviors, boost parents’ use of certain bolster relations to discipline, revoke parenting stress, and boost certain exits from a encourage home for children.

YouthBuild Offender Program
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: The module provides education, vocational training, and other youth-development services to low-income youths, ages 16–24, who have been convicted of a crime. The module is rated Promising. The module statistically significantly reduced recidivism and augmenting a odds of receiving a high propagandize diploma, GED, trade license, or training certificate. However, there were no effects on enrollment in postsecondary courses, employment, or certain measures of girl development.

Restorative Justice Programs for Juveniles
  

Promising - More than one Meta-Analysis

Promising - One Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: This use emphasizes correct a mistreat caused by rapist behavior. Restorative probity programs aim to correct a mistreat to a victim, diminution an offender’s recidivism rate, and urge participants’ perceptions of integrity and compensation with a process. The use is rated Promising for shortening juveniles’ recidivism rates, augmenting victims’ perceptions of fairness, and augmenting juveniles’ compensation and repair execution rates.

Operation Swordfish (Birmingham, UK)
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: This involvement was designed to forestall repeat and near-repeat burglaries. The module used a target-hardening, crime-prevention technique to revoke repeat victimization of a same households and neighbors within a same area. The module is rated No Effects. The module found no statistically poignant disproportion in both burglaries and time-to-repeat victimization between households in a diagnosis group, compared with households in a control group.

Police Body-Worn Cameras in Eight Police Departments in a United Kingdom and United States
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: This is a military body-worm camera involvement that has been implemented opposite 8 military departments in a United States and United Kingdom. The module equips officers with invariably recording body-worn cameras to record military and citizen interactions. The module is rated No Effects. There was no poignant outcome on military use of force, and use of cameras was compared with a statistically poignant boost in assaults opposite officers.

Stop, Question, and Frisk in New York City
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: This is a policing plan in that officers might stop and catch an particular if they have reasonable guess that a chairman is committing or about to dedicate a crime. The module is rated Promising. Significant effects were found on measures of non-traffic-related crime incidents in 3 of a 5 boroughs of New York City. A U.S. Federal Court ruled that stop, question, and frisks as implemented were unconstitutional and allocated a special guard to hospital concrete reforms.

Common Sense Parenting (CSP) Plus
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: A primogenitor training module designed to rise healthy parenting practices to urge child romantic law skills and high propagandize preparedness among low-income eighth graders and their families during high propagandize transition. This module is rated no effects. The investigate found no statistically poignant differences in parenting practices (positive parenting, unsuitable discipline, bad supervision, and rationales for parental decisions) between module participants and a control group.

View All Programs Practices

KEEP (Keeping Foster and Kinship Parents Supported and Trained)

Contingency Management Interventions for Substance Use Disorders
  

Effective - More than one Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: This is an involvement plan designed to revoke piece use disorders by rewarding certain function (e.g., disastrous drug tests) and self-denial rewards when undesired function is exhibited (e.g., certain drug screens). The altogether idea is avoidance from piece use. The use is rated Effective for shortening alcohol, tobacco, and unlawful drug use.

Prison Visitation for Incarcerated Adults
  

Promising - One Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: Prison visitation allows jailed people a event to accommodate with family and friends to means connectors and amicable supports. One of a categorical goals of jail visitation is to revoke recidivism of people once they are expelled from incarceration. The use is rated Promising for shortening recidivism of people who accept visits while incarcerated.

Police Body-Worn Cameras (Birmingham South, UK)
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: Police body-worn cameras are used to record military encounters with adults during officers’ shifts in Birmingham South. Officers were educated to start recording as shortly as they left their vehicles and to interpretation recording once a conditions was resolved. The module is rated Promising. There was a statistically poignant rebate in citizen injury, though no statistically poignant rebate in officer use of force and officer injury.

KEEP (Keeping Foster and Kinship Parents Supported and Trained)
  

Effective - More than one study

Program Summary: This a parent-training involvement for encourage and reciprocity relatives with a encourage child in a home ages 4 to 12, designed to revoke children’s problem behaviors by strengthening encourage parents’ skills. The module is rated Effective. The module was found to statistically significantly urge child problem behaviors, boost parents’ use of certain bolster relations to discipline, revoke parenting stress, and boost certain exits from a encourage home for children.

YouthBuild Offender Program
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: The module provides education, vocational training, and other youth-development services to low-income youths, ages 16–24, who have been convicted of a crime. The module is rated Promising. The module statistically significantly reduced recidivism and augmenting a odds of receiving a high propagandize diploma, GED, trade license, or training certificate. However, there were no effects on enrollment in postsecondary courses, employment, or certain measures of girl development.

Restorative Justice Programs for Juveniles
  

Promising - More than one Meta-Analysis

Promising - One Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: This use emphasizes correct a mistreat caused by rapist behavior. Restorative probity programs aim to correct a mistreat to a victim, diminution an offender’s recidivism rate, and urge participants’ perceptions of integrity and compensation with a process. The use is rated Promising for shortening juveniles’ recidivism rates, augmenting victims’ perceptions of fairness, and augmenting juveniles’ compensation and repair execution rates.

Operation Swordfish (Birmingham, UK)
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: This involvement was designed to forestall repeat and near-repeat burglaries. The module used a target-hardening, crime-prevention technique to revoke repeat victimization of a same households and neighbors within a same area. The module is rated No Effects. The module found no statistically poignant disproportion in both burglaries and time-to-repeat victimization between households in a diagnosis group, compared with households in a control group.

Police Body-Worn Cameras in Eight Police Departments in a United Kingdom and United States
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: This is a military body-worm camera involvement that has been implemented opposite 8 military departments in a United States and United Kingdom. The module equips officers with invariably recording body-worn cameras to record military and citizen interactions. The module is rated No Effects. There was no poignant outcome on military use of force, and use of cameras was compared with a statistically poignant boost in assaults opposite officers.

Stop, Question, and Frisk in New York City
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: This is a policing plan in that officers might stop and catch an particular if they have reasonable guess that a chairman is committing or about to dedicate a crime. The module is rated Promising. Significant effects were found on measures of non-traffic-related crime incidents in 3 of a 5 boroughs of New York City. A U.S. Federal Court ruled that stop, question, and frisks as implemented were unconstitutional and allocated a special guard to hospital concrete reforms.

Common Sense Parenting (CSP) Plus
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: A primogenitor training module designed to rise healthy parenting practices to urge child romantic law skills and high propagandize preparedness among low-income eighth graders and their families during high propagandize transition. This module is rated no effects. The investigate found no statistically poignant differences in parenting practices (positive parenting, unsuitable discipline, bad supervision, and rationales for parental decisions) between module participants and a control group.

View All Programs Practices

Drugmaker Sues Nebraska, as 15 Death-Penalty States Oppose Ruling Blocking Use of Drugs in Nevada

Less than a month after a Nevada court halted a execution of Scott Dozier in response to a lawsuit filed by generic-drug manufacturer Alvogen, another drug association has sued Nebraska, seeking to retard a use of a medicines in an arriving execution. The German-based curative company Fresenius Kabi filed fit in Nebraska sovereign justice on Aug 8, 2018 alleging that Nebraska dictated to govern Carey Dean Moore on Aug 14 regulating drugs made by a association that had been performed “through crude or bootleg means.” The lawsuit pronounced a company’s placement contracts with certified wholesalers and distributors demarcate sales to departments of corrections, and it alleges that Nebraska performed a drugs “in counterbalance and transgression of a placement contracts,” many approaching from an unapproved supplier. Nebraska Attorney General Doug Peterson pronounced a state’s execution drugs “were purchased rightly and pursuant to a State of Nebraska’s avocation to lift out official collateral sentences,” an avowal that can't be accurate since of a state’s privacy practices. The state has refused to brand a source of a drugs it intends to use in Moore’s execution, though dual of a drugs—the paralytic, cisatracurium, and potassium chloride, a drug used to stop a heart—are made by Fresenius Kabi and usually that association creates vials of potassium chloride in a distance performed by a state. 

Nebraska is one of fifteen death-penalty states that have assimilated in an amicus curiae (“friend of a court”) brief in a Nevada Supreme Court on Aug 6, 2018 propelling a justice to overturn a confining sequence that has prevented Nevada from carrying out executions regulating reserve of a drug, midazolam, constructed by a curative association Alvogen. Alvogen’s fit alleges that Nevada had performed a midazolam “by subterfuge” and “intentionally defrauded Alvogen’s distributor” by concealing a goal to use Alvogen’s medicine in Dozier‘s execution. The company’s pleadings indicted Nevada of “implicitly ma[king] a fake illustration that they had legitimate healing rationale” for shopping a drug and covering adult a loyal goal by carrying a drug shipped to a state bureau several hundred miles divided from a prison. In serve to arising a confining order, a Nevada conference justice stayed Dozier’s Jul 2018 execution. Like Fresenius Kabi, Alvogen alleges that a use of a products in executions would repairs a corporate repute and adversely impact financier and patron relations. The amicus brief was filed by 15 of a 30 other states that sanction collateral punishment, all with Republican attorneys general—Arkansas, Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Utah. The 9 death-penalty states with Democratic attorneys ubiquitous did not join a pleading, nor did 6 other states with Republican attorneys general. The pleading claims, though providing any significant support, that Alvogen’s lawsuit is a “latest front in a guerilla crusade being waged by anti-death-penalty activists and rapist invulnerability attorneys to stop official executions.” The state officials advise that, if a Nevada Supreme Court allows Dozier’s stay of execution to stand, activists will “flood” a courts in other states with identical “meritless” challenges. In 2017, a drug distributor McKesson sued Arkansas to forestall a state from regulating a supply of a paralytic drug, vecuronium bromide, in executions, alleging that the state had deliberately misled a association to trust that a drug would be used for legitimate medical purposes. The brief asserts that “Alvogen’s meritless claims counterpart those deserted by a Arkansas Supreme Court” in McKesson case. However, justice annals simulate that a Arkansas Supreme Court indeed returned McKesson’s box to a conference justice for serve evidentiary growth and a box remained active until a death of a state’s supply of vecuronium platitude rendered a box moot in a Spring of 2018.

In 2011, Nebraska illegally alien a execution drug sodium thiopental from Harris Pharma, a controversial distributor from India, that has told a drug manufacturer it was promulgation a drug to Africa for medical use. When a manufacturer, a Swiss company, Naari, schooled a product had been purchased for use in executions, a association sued Nebraska. In 2015, Nebraska again attempted to illegally import execution drugs from Harris Pharma, though a shipper, Federal Express, refused to move a drugs into a nation citing a miss of clearway from a Food and Drug Administration. Harris Pharma did not reinstate a $54,000 Nebraska had paid for a drugs. 

Hikma Pharmaceuticals USA, a manufacturer of fentanyl, has assimilated a Alvogen fit in an try to stop a use of a drug in a Nevada execution protocol. A Las Vegas conference decider is approaching to confirm on Sep 10 either Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, that produces a cisatracurium performed by Nevada, might join that suit. 

(Grant Schulte, Drugmaker seeks to retard Nebraska from regulating execution drugs, Associated Press, Aug 8, 2018; Joe Duggan and Martha Stoddard, Judge to order Friday on drugmaker’s lawsuit alleging that Nebraska officials might have illegally performed execution drugs, Omaha World-Herald, Aug 9, 2018; JoAnne Young, Drugmaker’s lawsuit could case Nebraska execution; conference set for Friday, Lincoln Journal-Star, Aug 9, 2018; Ken Ritter, 15 states side with Nevada in drugmaker check of execution, Associated Press, Aug 7, 2018.) Read a amicus curiae brief from a 15 states. See Lethal Injection.

Police Body-Worn Cameras (Birmingham South, UK)

Contingency Management Interventions for Substance Use Disorders
  

Effective - More than one Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: This is an involvement plan designed to revoke piece use disorders by rewarding certain function (e.g., disastrous drug tests) and self-denial rewards when undesired function is exhibited (e.g., certain drug screens). The altogether idea is avoidance from piece use. The use is rated Effective for shortening alcohol, tobacco, and unlawful drug use.

Prison Visitation for Incarcerated Adults
  

Promising - One Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: Prison visitation allows jailed people a event to accommodate with family and friends to means connectors and amicable supports. One of a categorical goals of jail visitation is to revoke recidivism of people once they are expelled from incarceration. The use is rated Promising for shortening recidivism of people who accept visits while incarcerated.

Police Body-Worn Cameras (Birmingham South, UK)
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: Police body-worn cameras are used to record military encounters with adults during officers’ shifts in Birmingham South. Officers were educated to start recording as shortly as they left their vehicles and to interpretation recording once a conditions was resolved. The module is rated Promising. There was a statistically poignant rebate in citizen injury, though no statistically poignant rebate in officer use of force and officer injury.

KEEP (Keeping Foster and Kinship Parents Supported and Trained)
  

Effective - More than one study

Program Summary: This a parent-training involvement for encourage and reciprocity relatives with a encourage child in a home ages 4 to 12, designed to revoke children’s problem behaviors by strengthening encourage parents’ skills. The module is rated Effective. The module was found to statistically significantly urge child problem behaviors, boost parents’ use of certain bolster relations to discipline, revoke parenting stress, and boost certain exits from a encourage home for children.

YouthBuild Offender Program
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: The module provides education, vocational training, and other youth-development services to low-income youths, ages 16–24, who have been convicted of a crime. The module is rated Promising. The module statistically significantly reduced recidivism and augmenting a odds of receiving a high propagandize diploma, GED, trade license, or training certificate. However, there were no effects on enrollment in postsecondary courses, employment, or certain measures of girl development.

Restorative Justice Programs for Juveniles
  

Promising - More than one Meta-Analysis

Promising - One Meta-Analysis

Practice Summary: This use emphasizes correct a mistreat caused by rapist behavior. Restorative probity programs aim to correct a mistreat to a victim, diminution an offender’s recidivism rate, and urge participants’ perceptions of integrity and compensation with a process. The use is rated Promising for shortening juveniles’ recidivism rates, augmenting victims’ perceptions of fairness, and augmenting juveniles’ compensation and repair execution rates.

Operation Swordfish (Birmingham, UK)
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: This involvement was designed to forestall repeat and near-repeat burglaries. The module used a target-hardening, crime-prevention technique to revoke repeat victimization of a same households and neighbors within a same area. The module is rated No Effects. The module found no statistically poignant disproportion in both burglaries and time-to-repeat victimization between households in a diagnosis group, compared with households in a control group.

Police Body-Worn Cameras in Eight Police Departments in a United Kingdom and United States
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: This is a military body-worm camera involvement that has been implemented opposite 8 military departments in a United States and United Kingdom. The module equips officers with invariably recording body-worn cameras to record military and citizen interactions. The module is rated No Effects. There was no poignant outcome on military use of force, and use of cameras was compared with a statistically poignant boost in assaults opposite officers.

Stop, Question, and Frisk in New York City
  

Promising - One study

Program Summary: This is a policing plan in that officers might stop and catch an particular if they have reasonable guess that a chairman is committing or about to dedicate a crime. The module is rated Promising. Significant effects were found on measures of non-traffic-related crime incidents in 3 of a 5 boroughs of New York City. A U.S. Federal Court ruled that stop, question, and frisks as implemented were unconstitutional and allocated a special guard to hospital concrete reforms.

Common Sense Parenting (CSP) Plus
  

No Effects - One study

Program Summary: A primogenitor training module designed to rise healthy parenting practices to urge child romantic law skills and high propagandize preparedness among low-income eighth graders and their families during high propagandize transition. This module is rated no effects. The investigate found no statistically poignant differences in parenting practices (positive parenting, unsuitable discipline, bad supervision, and rationales for parental decisions) between module participants and a control group.

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Prison Visitation for Incarcerated Adults

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Promising - One Meta-AnalysisCrime Delinquency – Multiple crime/offense types

Practice Goals/Practice Components
Prison visitation, a longstanding underline of a U.S. jail system, allows jailed people a event to accommodate with family and friends to assistance means connectors and amicable supports. One of a categorical goals of jail visitation is to revoke recidivism of people once they are expelled from incarceration.

There are dual primary forms of jail visitation: 1) in-person, and 2) conjugal/furlough. In-person visits can take many forms, depending on a correctional facility, including face-to-face conversations by potion partitions or brief hit (i.e., no overnights) in an open visiting room. Conjugal/furlough visits concede people to spend an extended volume of time, customarily overnight, with family members, and in mobile homes or other structures that are apart from a ubiquitous jail population. However, usually a following states currently offer conjugal or overnight visits: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Nebraska, New York, South Dakota, and Washington.

Prison visitation might also change by correctional facility. For example, some prisons might use visitation as a payoff for good function or might have a despotic screening routine and criteria that are used to establish who is authorised to revisit (for instance, a caller can be unfit from visiting if they yield fake or false information, or if they have a rapist history).

Practice Theory
There are dual fanciful perspectives that have been suggested to explain a attribute between jail visitation and successful reentry for adults: amicable holds speculation and aria theory. Social holds speculation posits that jail visitation can assistance say or strengthen certain amicable holds by face-to-face interaction, that can assistance to forestall jailed people from enchanting in serve rapist function on their release. Further, visitation can offer people a event to safety or revive relations that were severed as a outcome of their holds (Mitchell, Spooner, and Zhang 2016; Mears et al. 2011).

With courtesy to aria theory, in-prison visitation might assistance people cope with a aria they feel both during and after incarceration. Visitations can revoke individuals’ feelings of frustration, anger, and despondency compared with a detriment of their ties to families or friends (Mitchell, Spooner, and Zhang 2016; Mears et al. 2011).

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

top borderPromising - One Meta-AnalysisCrime Delinquency – Multiple crime/offense types
Aggregating a formula from 16 studies, Mitchell, Spooner, and Zhang (2016) found a statistical poignant outcome on recidivism for jail visitation. The altogether contingency ratio was 0.740, definition there was a 26 percent diminution in recidivism for adults who were visited in prison, compared with adults who were not visited during their time in prison.bottom border

Meta-Analysis Methodology

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Meta-Analysis 1
Mitchell, Spooner, and Zhang (2016) conducted a meta-analysis to weigh a impact of jail visitation on recidivism. To be enclosed in a review, a aim race was singular to adults who had been expelled from correctional facilities, and a diagnosis was singular to jail visitation and did not embody other forms of hit (i.e., phone calls). Studies had to be initial or quasi-experimental and had to embody a magnitude of recidivism (as indicated by arrest, conviction, or incarceration). Studies had to yield information to calculate outcome sizes. A extensive hunt was finished though singular to studies published in a English denunciation (although locations outward a United States were included). Several online databases were searched, including Criminal Justice Abstracts, ProQuest, Google Scholar, National Criminal Justice References Service, and PsychInfo.

A sum of 16 authorised studies were identified for inclusion in a review. All a studies were quasi-experimental designs, in that a diagnosis organisation perceived visitation, and a control organisation did not. Two studies focused usually on womanlike adults, 5 studies focused usually on masculine adults, and 9 studies enclosed both males and females. Visitation forms examined enclosed in-person (10 studies), conjugal/furloughs (5 studies), and family seductiveness (1 study). The outcome (recidivism) was totalled in 4 ways: 1) new arrests (3 studies); 2) new philosophy (4 studies); 3) reincarceration (5 studies); and a rebate of arrest, new convictions, and reincarceration (4 studies). Seven of a studies were published in peer-reviewed journals, dual were doctoral dissertations, 5 were supervision technical reports, and dual were books.

The sold and altogether outcome sizes were distributed as an contingency ratio, that represents a contingency of recidivism for those who perceived visitation, compared with a contingency of recidivism for those who did not accept visitation. Visitation was coded as a binary magnitude (i.e., either a adult was visited or not). Subgroup analyses were conducted to establish judge effects. A pointless effects indication was used for both a altogether outcome distance and a judge analyses.

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Cost

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Other Information

top borderMitchell, Spooner, and Zhang (2016) enclosed additional tests–called judge analyses–to see if sold factors strengthened a impact of jail visitation on recidivism. Specifically, a judge analyses looked during a impact of gender, visitation type, and follow-up period. With courtesy to gender, a largest statistically poignant rebate in recidivism was found for studies that enclosed usually adult men, a smaller though statistically poignant rebate in recidivism was found for studies that enclosed both group and women, and no statistically poignant rebate in recidivism was found for studies that enclosed usually women. This anticipating suggests that jail visitation is some-more effective for adult men, compared with adult women. It is critical to note, however, that this anticipating should be interpreted with counsel as usually dual studies enclosed female-only samples.

With courtesy to visitation type, there was a 36 percent rebate in recidivism found for studies that looked during conjugal visitation and furloughs, and a 25 percent rebate in recidivism for studies looking during in-person visitation (both formula were statistically significant). Although it appears that conjugal/furlough visitation had a larger impact than in-person visitation, a authors remarkable that a studies were conducted over 20 years ago, and therefore a formula should be interpreted with caution. Finally, there was a 53 percent rebate in recidivism found for studies on visitation with follow-up durations of rebate than 1 year and an 8 percent rebate in recidivism found for studies with follow-up durations of some-more than 1 year though rebate than 3 years. Both formula were statistically significant. However, no statistically poignant impact on recidivism was found for studies with follow-up durations of some-more than 3 years though rebate than 5 years—which indicates that a impact of jail visitation might diminution over time. It is critical to note that this anticipating should also be interpreted with counsel as usually dual studies had follow-up durations of some-more than 3 years.bottom border

Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Meta-Analysis 1
Mitchell, Meghan M., Kallee Spooner, and Di Jia Yan Zhang. 2016. “The Effect of Prison Visitation on Reentry Success: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Criminal Justice 47:74–83.

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Additional References

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Mears, Daniel P., Joshua Cochran, Sonja Siennick, and William Bales. 2012. “Prison Visitation and Recidivism.” Justice Quarterly 26(6):889–918.

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Related Programs

top borderFollowing are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated programs that are associated to this practice:

In-Prison Visitation (Florida) Promising - One study
Visitation in jail allows inmates to bond to a outward universe by building amicable holds with family members and friends. The altogether idea of in-prison visitation is to revoke recidivism and support in assisting inmates adjust to transitioning behind into their community. The module is rated Promising. The recidivism rate was significantly reduce for inmates who perceived visitation compared with those inmates who did not accept visitation.

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Contingency Management Interventions for Substance Use Disorders

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Effective - More than one Meta-AnalysisDrugs Substance Abuse – Multiple substances

Practice Goals/Target Population
Contingency government interventions for piece use disorders are used in diagnosis and impediment programs and are designed to inspire certain function among module participants, with a altogether idea of avoidance from piece use. Contingency government interventions prerogative module participants when they vaunt certain behaviors (e.g., disastrous drug tests). However, when module participants vaunt disastrous behaviors (e.g., certain drug tests), rewards are withheld, or participants accept punitive consequences.

Practice Theory
Contingency government interventions are formed on operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a training routine that aims to control and/or figure function by certain or disastrous consequences, typically famous as rewards or punishments, respectively (Higgins and Petry 1999; Skinner 1938).

Program Components
In strait government programs, a active diagnosis part is incentives/rewards; participants are incentivized to vaunt certain function since doing so will outcome in a reward. Although there are opposite forms of strait government programs for piece use disorders, a use of incentives/rewards is common opposite all module types. Two of a many common strait government programs for piece use disorders embody Voucher-based Reinforcement Therapy (VBRT) and Variable Magnitude of Reinforcement Procedure, also famous as a Fishbowl Procedure (Prendergast et al. 2006; Dutra et al. 2008).

In VBRT, when module participants contention samples that shade disastrous for drug use, they accept vouchers that have several financial values. These vouchers can be traded in for goods/services. However, when samples prove new drug use, these vouchers are withheld. There are several bolster schedules that coincide with VBRT; for example, vouchers can boost with any unbroken disastrous drug sample, vouchers can reset to a reduce value following a certain drug sample, or a prerogative document can be supposing after a certain series of disastrous drug samples (Prendergast et al. 2006).

In Variable Magnitude of Reinforcement Procedure, also famous as a Fishbowl Procedure, participants can pull from a play that contains slips of paper, after providing a disastrous drug sample. Approximately half of a slips contend “good job,” while a other half prove a financial reward, trimming from $1 to $100. Thus, with any draw, participants have a possibility of winning a prize. After providing a certain series of unbroken disastrous drug samples, participants accept prerogative draws from a bowl. As with other strait government programs, if participants contention a certain drug sample, they are incompetent to pull from a play (Prendergast et al. 2006).

Although not as common, there are other variations of strait government programs for piece use disorders. One module offers people a ability to take home doses of methadone after providing a certain series of disastrous drug samples. Other programs offer people affordable housing and work opportunities fortuitous on a receipt of disastrous drug samples and vital a drug-free lifestyle.

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

top borderEffective - More than one Meta-AnalysisDrugs Substance Abuse – Multiple substances
Overall, a formula from dual meta-analyses indicated that strait government programs had a statistically poignant impact on piece use disorders. Aggregating a formula from 43 randomized tranquil trials (RCTs), Prendergast and colleagues (2006) found a statistically poignant altogether meant outcome distance of 0.44, suggesting that participants in strait government programs had reduce rates of unlawful drug use, ethanol use, and tobacco use than those who did not attend in such programs. Similarly, Dutra and colleagues (2008) many-sided a outcome sizes from 14 studies (RCTs and quasi-experimental studies) and found a statistically poignant meant outcome distance of 0.58, suggesting that participants in strait government programs had reduce rates of unlawful drug use than participants in a control conditions. bottom border

Meta-Analysis Methodology

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Meta-Analysis 1
Prendergast and colleagues (2006) evaluated a efficiency of strait government programs for substance-using individuals. To be authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis, studies had to be outcome evaluations of strait government programs, delivered to adults or juveniles, and designed to provide coherence on alcohol, tobacco, or unlawful drugs. Moreover, studies had to be published in English between 1970 and 2002, have used possibly an initial pattern or quasi-experimental design, and have a sum representation distance of during slightest 10. Finally, usually studies that enclosed adequate information to discriminate an outcome distance were authorised for inclusion. To brand studies, a extensive hunt was conducted of a accumulation of bibliographic databases regulating hunt terms that interconnected a sold technique (e.g., strait management, token economy, behavioral contracting) with terms referring to a specific problem function (e.g., addiction, drug abuse, alcoholism, cocaine, tobacco).

A sum of 1,150 studies were identified by this hunt strategy. After screening these studies opposite a eligibility criteria, a sum of 81 studies were authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis. However, of these 81 studies, usually 47 were used in a final research given a singular series of information supposing in some of a studies. All 47 studies were conducted in a United States, with 43 regulating initial designs, and 4 regulating quasi-experimental designs. Approximately 70 percent of a enclosed studies were conducted during a 1990s. Moreover, opposite a 47 studies, representation sizes ranged from 12 to 844, with a median representation distance of 69. Finally, nonetheless attempts were done to locate unpublished literature, a enclosed studies were all published studies. The aim drugs of a enclosed studies were marijuana, tobacco, cocaine, opiates, alcohol, and a multiple of one or some-more drugs. Treatment approaches enclosed cash, methadone take-homes, methadone dose increase, methadone dose decrease, graduation to subsequent diagnosis phase, module discharge, vouchers, price reduction, and rebate in hospital responsibilities.

To establish either strait government programs for piece use disorders are effective, both bound effects and pointless effects models were used in a analysis; however, a categorical outcome of seductiveness (illicit drug use, ethanol use, and tobacco use) was found regulating a pointless effects model.

Meta-Analysis 2

Using meta-analytic techniques, Dutra and colleagues (2008) analyzed a outcome of strait government programs on unlawful piece use disorders, including cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and polysubstance abuse and dependence. To brand studies, PsycINFO was used to find articles published between 1840 and Mar 2005, regulating a accumulation of pivotal hunt terms, including though not singular to cocaine, piece use, piece abuse, diagnosis outcome, contingency, and voucher. Additionally, MEDLINE was used to brand articles accessible between 1966 and Mar 2005, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was used to brand studies for a initial entertain of 2005. Both PsychINFO and MEDLINE searches were singular to those published in English.   

To be authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis, studies had to be investigations of a efficiency of particular psychosocial treatments for piece abuse/dependence (not including ethanol or nicotine abuse/dependence), and use randomized tranquil trials, including a comparison group. Moreover, studies were singular to adult participants and to investigations on a efficiency of nonintensive outpatient treatments. Nonintensive outpatient diagnosis was tangible as a limit of three, 2-hour per week diagnosis sessions. Finally, studies had to embody self-report outcomes of seductiveness or toxicology screening outcomes of interest. Self-report outcomes of seductiveness enclosed 1) meant limit series of days or weeks temperate via treatment, 2) meant percent of days temperate via treatment, 3) percent of representation temperate for 3 or some-more weeks via treatment, 4) percent of representation demonstrating posttreatment/clinically poignant abstinence, and 5) posttreatment scores on a Addiction Severity Index. Toxicology outcomes of seductiveness enclosed 1) meant series of disastrous drug screens via treatment, 2) meant percent of disastrous drug screens via treatment, and 3) percent of representation that demonstrated clinically poignant abstinence.

Using this authorised criterion, a sum of 34 studies were authorised for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Across a 34 studies, participants were approximately 35 years aged and, on average, 62.2 percent masculine and 61.0 percent white (information about other races/ethnicities was not provided). However, of these 34 studies, 14 pertained to strait management/voucher programs; a other 20 studies looked during other forms of diagnosis that were not reviewed for CrimeSolutions.gov. Across a 14 studies, a intent-to-treat representation (i.e., a representation distance of a diagnosis condition) enclosed 785 participants (this did not embody a representation distance of participants in a control condition, that was not provided). In a 14 studies, a diagnosis condition perceived strait management, while a control condition perceived diagnosis as usual, motivational encouragement interviewing, 12-step facilitation, noncontingency management, or customary care.

Overall, to establish a impact of strait government on unlawful piece use disorders, an normal meant outcome distance was combined regulating Cohen’s d.

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Cost

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Other Information

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Evidence-Base (Meta-Analyses Reviewed)

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Meta-Analysis 1
Prendergast, Michael, Deborah Podus, John Finney, Lisa Greenwell, and John Roll. 2006. “Contingency Management for Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.” Addiction 101(11):1546–60.

Meta-Analysis 2
Dutra, Lisa, Georgia Stathopoulou, Shawnee L. Basden, Teresa M. Leyro, Mark B. Powers, and Michael W. Otto. 2008. “A Meta-Analytic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Substance Use Disorders.” American Journal of Psychiatry 165(2):179–87.

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Additional References

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a use profile:

Higgins, S.T., and N.M. Petry. 1999. “Contingency Management: Incentives for Sobriety.” Alcohol Research Health 23(2):122–27.

Skinner, B. F. 1938. The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

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Related Programs

top borderFollowing are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated programs that are associated to this practice:

Prize-Based Incentive Contingency Management for Substance Abusers Effective - More than one study
A chronicle of strait government that provides adult piece abusers in community-based diagnosis with an event to win prizes if they sojourn drug free. The module is rated Effective. The inducement organisation had a longest drug use abstinence, investigate retention, and attended some-more conversing sessions compared with those who perceived common care.

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