Bicultural Competence Skills Approach

Evidence Rating:
Promising – More than one investigate Promising - More than one study

Program Goals/Theory
The Bicultural Competence Skills Approach is an involvement designed to forestall abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs by Native American teenagers by training them amicable skills.

The module draws on bicultural cunning and amicable training theories. A bicultural cunning proceed teaches American Indian people to pull on both Native American and renouned American cultures—instead of identifying with usually one culture—to improved adjust to, correlate with, and flower within both cultures. Social training speculation suggests a application of building skills in problem solving, preference making, nonverbal and written communication, and amicable network building.

Program Components
Intervention groups are led by dual Native American counselors, and 10 to fifteen 50-minute sessions are delivered. Through cognitive and behavioral methods tailored to a informative prerogatives and existence of a lives of Native American youth, participants are educated in and use communication, coping, and taste skills. Communication skills are introduced with biculturally applicable examples of written and nonverbal influences on piece use. For instance, leaders indication refusing offers of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs from their peers but offending their Native American and non–Native American friends. While participants use communication skills, leaders offer coaching, feedback, and praise. Participants learn taste skills to improved brand and equivocate situations that inspire or support piece use and to learn about healthy alternatives to high-risk behaviors. Coping skills embody self-instruction and decrease to assistance subjects hoop vigour and equivocate piece use situations. Participants also learn about building networks of prosocial peers, family, and genealogical members. Leaders advise alternatives to regulating tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs and learn participants to prerogative themselves for certain decisions and actions. All sessions embody Native American values, legends, and stories.

Two 50-minute upholder sessions are delivered semiannually and embody developmentally suitable calm and strategies.

In some versions of a program, piece abuse recognition is also brought into a community. Families, schools, neighbors, law coercion officials, and blurb establishments are enclosed in a array of activities to lift awareness. Activities embody media releases, flyer and print placement to village businesses and organizations, and informational sessions during internal schools.

Evaluation Outcomes

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Knowledge and Attitudes About Substance Use
Schinke et al. (1988) found poignant formula during evident posttest dimensions and during 6-month follow-up in preference of a module group. At posttest, module students were significantly some-more associating about piece use and abuse and hold reduction auspicious attitudes about piece use in a Native American enlightenment than their control organisation counterparts. At a 6-month follow-up, involvement participants continued to measure aloft on measures of believe of piece abuse.

Interactive Behavior
The involvement organisation youths also had significantly aloft ratings for self-control, assertiveness, and a ability to beget choice suggestions to counterpart pressure–based support to use substances. At a 6-month follow-up, involvement participants continued to measure aloft on measures of believe of piece abuse, self-control, choice suggestions, and assertiveness.

Substance Use
The outcomes on substances used in a prior 14 days showed that involvement youths reported reduce levels of alcohol, marijuana, nonmedical drug, and smokeless tobacco use. At a 6-month follow-up, involvement participants reported reduction use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and inhalants in a prior 14 days.

Study 2
Substance Use
Schinke, Tepavac, and Cole (2000) found that over a 3 years, youths in all 3 groups increasing their rates of tobacco, alcohol, and pot use; however, rates of smokeless tobacco, alcohol, and pot use were reduce by 43 percent, 24 percent, and 53 percent, respectively, for those who perceived a life skills training compared with a control group. Rates of cigarette use did not differ between these groups. Youths receiving a life skills training and village member had insignificantly reduce rates of all piece use than a control arm and insignificantly aloft rates of use than a other diagnosis organisation receiving a skills involvement alone. The researchers assume that a village member might have diluted a certain effects performed by regulating a life skills training.

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Evaluation Methodology

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Schnike et al. (1988) used an initial pattern to consider a program’s impact on a use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Subjects were willingly recruited and (after pretesting by reservation site) incidentally divided into impediment and control conditions. The representation of 137 Native American youths, whose normal age was between 11 and 12, came from dual western Washington State reservation sites in a race drawn from genealogical and open schools. The research determined organisation equilibrium during pretest on a children’s demographics, domicile composition, acculturation level, and stream place of residence. All subjects finished outcome measures before, immediately following, and 6 months after a involvement that totalled culture-relevant counterpart influences on use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs (“interactive behavior”); self-reported levels of piece use in a past 14 days (for smoked and smokeless tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, inhalant, amphetamine, barbiturate, cocaine, and nonmedical drug use); and changes in piece abuse believe and attitudes applicable to Native American culture. The section of assignment matched a section of research (individual). The rubbing research showed that rubbing averaged 9 percent opposite a representation during 6-month follow-up, with no castaway differences identified between conditions.

Study 2
Schinke, Tepavac, and Cole (2000) used an initial pattern to incidentally allot 1,396 Native American third- by fifth-graders, with a meant age of 10.28, to one of 3 groups: a diagnosis organisation consisting of both a life skills training and village component, a diagnosis organisation consisting only of a life skills training, and a control organisation consisting of no intervention. Youths were from 27 genealogical and open schools on 10 reservations in North and South Dakota, Idaho, Montana, and Oklahoma. Attrition over a march of a investigate was 1.58 percent during 6 months post-baseline, 3.28 percent during 18 months post-baseline, 4.59 percent during 30 months post-baseline, and 5.44 percent during 42 months post-baseline, for an altogether rubbing rate of 14.11 percent. No castaway differences were identified between conditions. No pretest differences were identified among a 3 arms of a investigate on use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana.

Booster sessions were administered to a diagnosis groups semiannually. Posttests were administered 6 months after a involvement and each 12 months afterward for 3 years.

Measures enclosed self-reported piece use and spit sampling to determine piece use.

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Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)

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Study 1
Schinke, Steven P., Gilbert J. Botvin, Joseph E. Trimble, Mario A. Orlandi, Lewayne D. Gilchrist, and Von S. Locklear. 1988. “Preventing Substance Abuse Among American–Indian Adolescents: A Bicultural Competence Skills Approach.” Journal of Consulting Psychology 35(1):87–90.

Study 2
Schinke, Steven P., Lela Tepavac, and Kristin C. Cole. 2000. “Preventing Substance Use Among Native American Youth: Three-Year Results.” Addictive Behaviors 25(3):387–97.

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Additional References

top borderThese sources were used in a growth of a module profile:

Hawkins, Elizabeth H., Lillian H. Cummins, and G. Alan Marlatt. 2004. “Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities.” Psychological Bulletin 130(2):304–323.

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