A 2004 investigate by Elliot and colleagues enclosed 18 open high schools from northwest Oregon and southwest Washington who participated in a impending randomized hearing of a Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) intervention. Schools were matched in pairs formed on size, socioeconomic status, and tyro demographics, and afterwards were incidentally reserved to possibly a diagnosis or control group. Schools that were randomized into a diagnosis organisation were offering a possibility to concede all womanlike student–athletes in sports, dance, and cheerleading teams to attend in a ATHENA program. At slightest one organisation per propagandize concluded to participate. For each diagnosis organisation that concluded to attend in a ATHENA program, a identical organisation from a relating control propagandize concluded to attend in an choice condition. The control teams were offering preprinted pamphlets concerning jumbled eating, drug use, and sports nutrition. Participating schools came from several locations to minimize cross-contamination.
The investigate examined a evident posttest outcomes from a year 1 cohort. The involvement organisation consisted of 9 schools, with 457 students surveyed in a preseason and 337 students surveyed in a postseason (74 percent retained). The normal age of a womanlike students in a involvement organisation was 15.4 years, and 93.6 percent were white. The control organisation consisted of 9 matched schools, with 471 students surveyed in a preseason and 331 students surveyed in a postseason (70 percent retained). The normal age in a control organisation was 15.3 years, and 91.4 percent were white. Before a ATHENA intervention, a diagnosis and control groups reported identical demographics, drug use indices, believe scores, and self-assessed behaviors and attitudes.
Immediate outcomes were assessed with pre–sports and post–sports deteriorate self-report questionnaires. The pretest was given before participants began a ATHENA program; a posttest measures were collected within 2 weeks following a finish of a competition season. The questionnaires assessed knowledge, intensity influences on drug use and jumbled eating (including those of peers, coaches, a media, and society), and member characteristics. The consult questions were formed on equipment from progressing investigate and other surveys concerning jumbled eating, depression, self-image, and self-esteem. Behavioral vigilant was assessed by seeking about destiny actions regulating a seven-point Likert scale, with responses trimming from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Substance abuse questions used a format identical to Monitoring a Future and a Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance to consider addition use and jumbled eating behaviors.
To establish baseline equilibrium and involvement effects, a investigate used an research of covariance–based proceed within a universal estimating equations random-effects indication framework, that extends universal linear models to understanding with time coherence and hierarchical structure. The occurrence of new users (i.e., athletes who began a function after a baseline assessments) was dynamic and conditions were compared regulating a chi-squared exam analysis. An equivalent format was used to inspect participants who stopped a behavior.
The 2008 investigate by Elliot and colleagues was a follow-up to a progressing randomized investigate (Elliot et al. 2004) that examined a short-term efficacy of ATHENA. The 2008 investigate analyzed a formula from a follow-up consult that was sent to all diagnosis and control participants who had finished high propagandize and were 18 years and comparison 1 year after a ATHENA intervention’s final year. A one-page unknown consult was sent, along with a self-addressed, hammered envelope, to participants’ strange addresses. The mailed petition was brief and was singular to demographics, drug use, eating behaviors, and comparison attitudes.
The follow-up surveys were mailed to 368 students in a involvement group; 203 (55 percent) returned responses. The surveys were also mailed to 389 students in a control group, and 197 (51 percent) returned responses. For diagnosis organisation participants who returned a follow-up survey, 90 percent were in college or trade school, and 51 percent had graduated from high propagandize a year before responding to a survey, while 49 percent had graduated 2 or 3 years before. For control organisation participants, 90 percent were in college or trade school, and about 45 percent had graduated from high propagandize a year before responding to a survey, while 55 percent had graduated 2 or 3 years earlier.
Alcohol use, tobacco use, other drug use, and jumbled eating behaviors were indexed regulating a strange standardised format. For less-frequent behaviors, such as smoking and pot use, a investigate compared use in a final year and lifetime use. For some-more prevalent behaviors, such as ethanol use, use in a past 3 months and in the last year were indexed and compared. The petition also presented respondents with a spectrum of womanlike physiques and asked them to brand a healthiest and many appealing representation.
Baseline equilibrium and shorter-term involvement effects were examined regulating an research of covariance–based proceed within a universal estimating equations random-effects indication framework. Students were no longer clustered on teams and in schools. The organisation between participants’ investigate condition and their long-term drug and ethanol use was examined with logistic retrogression regulating years given graduation as a covariate in a analysis. Body picture responses were assessed with t–tests.