Appendix A: Methodology

The estimates and projections in this news build on and refurbish information from a Apr 2015 Pew Research Center report, “The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050.” Soon after a recover of that report, a vast liquid of migrants entered Europe seeking interloper status. This news includes estimates of how Europe’s Muslim competition altered from mid-2010 to mid-2016, with sold courtesy to change caused by migration. It also includes projections of how a distance of Europe’s Muslim competition competence change in a destiny underneath opposite flight scenarios.

This investigate takes advantage of some-more than 2,500 information sources collected for before projections, including censuses, demographic surveys, ubiquitous competition surveys and other studies. Additionally, this investigate draws on new data, including asylum-seeker information by mid-2016 from Eurostat (Europe’s statistical agency), as good as new consult and other supervision data.

Baseline (2010) estimates of populations by religion

The commencement competition sum in this news are for a year 2010. Several Pew Research Center reports estimated a distance of eremite populations, including Muslims, in Europe in a year 2010 (“The Future of a Global Muslim Population,” expelled in 2011; “The Global Religious Landscape,” expelled in 2012; and a aforementioned “The Future of World Religions” report, expelled in 2015). Each news builds on a before reports, adjusting estimates formed on new data. While before eremite demography reports personal 50 countries, including Russia, as partial of Europe, this news focuses on a narrower set of 30 countries: a 28 member nations of a European Union (as of mid-2016), as good as Norway and Switzerland.7 The reasons for a narrower geographic concentration of this news are both concrete and pragmatic. These 30 countries have perceived a bulk of Europe’s haven seekers in new years and they are a countries for that information on asylum-seeking patterns are accessible from Eurostat.

The bullion customary for measuring eremite temperament in this news is a census or consult doubt that asks, “What is your religion, if any?” The aim in this news is to magnitude temperament sociologically rather than theologically. Individuals who self-identify as Muslim are personal as such, regardless of their turn of confluence to what competence be deliberate authorized faith and practice.

Among a 30 countries lonesome in this report, about half of these nations directly magnitude eremite temperament in a normal census or census surrogate (such as a large-sample domicile survey). Census information are ideal for measuring a distance and characteristics of minority populations. However, in a remaining countries it was compulsory to rest on sources that miss a statistical energy of a census. In some countries, ubiquitous competition surveys and demographic surveys yield sufficient fact on a distance and demographic characteristics of Muslim populations. However, customary ubiquitous competition surveys of 1,000 to 3,000 respondents competence under-sample Muslims, quite in countries with estimable first-generation newcomer populations, who competence not be smooth in a country’s widespread languages and who competence be formidable to constraint in customary sampling frames. Estimates of a distance of Muslim populations are formed on an comment of all accessible data, including census and consult data, competition registers, immigration information and other reports and sources. Primary sources used for any nation are listed in Appendix B.

Special considerations in France and Germany

The attraction of measuring eremite temperament varies opposite European countries. While many countries do collect information on Muslims and other eremite groups in a census, in other countries, such as France, governments shorten a collection of sacrament information on a census and other supervision surveys. A 1978 French law imposes stipulations on a collection of information regarding to race, ethnicity and eremite opinions unless a theme gives demonstrate consent. While sacrament has not been totalled on a inhabitant supervision census in France since 1872, it is nonetheless still possible to magnitude eremite temperament and use in France.

Two French surveys are quite critical for this report. Our baseline guess of a distance of France’s 2010 Muslim competition is formed essentially on information from a 2008 “Trajectories and Origins” consult of some-more than 20,000 respondents in civil France (which includes oversamples of first- and second-generation immigrants) sponsored by a French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) and a National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE). Our projection to 2016 was certified opposite a 2016 consult of 15,459 respondents sponsored by a Institut Montaigne and carried out by a French Institute of Public Opinion (Ifop).8

Since Germany’s 1990 reunification, no German census was conducted during all until 2011, when a nation was compulsory to lift out a census as a member of a EU. Prior to 2011, competition estimates had been formed on reports of births, deaths and moves (in, out or within Germany), that people are compulsory to make to their internal governments. Individuals who left Germany yet an outlook of returning were not encouraged to deregister as residents, and were over-counted, artificially exaggerating a “healthy-migrant effect” – a puzzlingly high array of migrants vital to be 110. While aggregations of metropolitan registries were practiced to comment for some disaster to deregister, such adjustments were not sufficient, and a 2011 census suggested that Germany had overestimated a competition by 1.5 million people. Most of these blank people were migrants who had left Germany yet deregistering. The 2011 census was an improvement, yet it did not accumulate accurate estimates of eremite organisation sizes. Due to a cryptic petition design, eremite connection was totalled with a two-step question, that was partly optional, and a formula were deceptive and systematically undercounted non-Christians. Our estimates of Germany’s Muslim competition in this news build on new estimates from a German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees.9

The purpose of projections in this report

The 2016 estimates and 2050 projections in this news are formed on projections from 2010 baseline data. The projections rest on contention information about a characteristics of Muslims and non-Muslims, including age and sex composition, flood rates, eremite switching patterns, and flight patterns. The successive territory describes a projection methods. Subsequent sections yield fact on a contention information used in a projections.

The projection approach: Explaining multistate cohort-component projections

The technical calculations for a projections in this news were done by Marcin Stonawski, a Religion-Education-Demography plan personality during a International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), in conference with Michaela Potančoková (a investigate academician during IIASA) and Pew Research Center researchers, regulating an modernized transformation of a customary demographic routine of creation competition projections. The customary proceed is called a cohort-component method, and it takes a age and sex structure of a competition into comment when lifted a competition brazen in time. This has a advantage of noticing that an initial baseline competition can be comparatively “young,” with a high suit of people in younger age groups or comparatively “old,” with a high suit of comparison people.

Cohorts are groups of people that had an knowledge in a sold time. A birth cohort, a form of conspirator referenced in this context, comprises people innate in a certain period. Birth cohorts can also be described as males or females who have reached a certain age in a sold year. For example, a cohorts of females ages 15 to 19 in a year 2000 and males ages 15 to 19 in a year 2000 common a knowledge of being innate between 1981 and 1985.

Components are a 3 ways in that populations grow or shrink: new entrants around births, exits around deaths and net changes from migration. Each conspirator of a competition is projected into a destiny by adding approaching gains – births and people relocating into a nation (immigrants) – and subtracting approaching waste – deaths and people relocating out (emigrants) – year-by-year. The really youngest cohorts, those ages 0 to 4, are combined by requesting age-specific flood rates to any womanlike conspirator in a childbearing years (ages 15 to 49).

The cohort-component routine has been in existence for some-more than a century. First suggested by English economist Edwin Cannan in 1895, afterwards serve softened by demographers in a 1930s and ’40s, it has been widely adopted given World War II. It is used by a United Nations Population Division, a U.S. Census Bureau, other inhabitant statistical offices, and countless educational and investigate institutions.

The modernized several of this approach, multistate cohort-component projection, became viable starting in a 1970s interjection to a accessibility of mainframe computers and work by a American geographer Andrei Rogers, among others. The multistate proceed permits coexisting projection of mixed eremite groups, holding into comment transformation by sacrament in age, sex, childbearing patterns and inclination and instruction of migration. This proceed also enables displaying of eremite switching as a transition between eremite “states.”

Projection inputs for any nation – including differential information by sacrament on fertility, age structure, flight and, where available, switching rates – were used for multistate cohort-component projections going out to a year 2050. Country-level 2010 competition data, as good as flood and mankind trajectories, are formed on a 2015 rider of a United Nations’ World Population Prospects.

All projection models assume that Muslims and non-Muslims within any nation will see their flood levels solemnly intersect toward matching flood rates by 2110 – a century from a baseline year of a projections. The arrogance that flood differences gradually will lessen within countries is formed on justification that when people live in a same mercantile and amicable milieu, their flood patterns tend to turn increasingly identical over time. Studies have shown, for example, that a brood of immigrants to a United States and Europe tend to adopt a flood patterns of a ubiquitous competition in a countries where they live within a few generations. The adoption of a comparatively regressive 100-year timeframe for within-country joining reflects a fact that geographic clustering, incompatible preparation levels and other factors competence continue sold childbearing patterns among some eremite groups.10 At any step of a categorical projection scenario, flood for a sum competition of a nation follows a UN middle several assumptions from a 2015 revision.

All projection models extend stream eremite switching rates in a 22 countries with accessible data. Those rates are used to calculate a upsurge of people in certain age and sex groups who pierce between Muslim and non-Muslim categories during any five-year interlude of a projections. In countries for that switching information are available, researchers generated new rates of switching. The categorical projection indication assumes that rising cohorts will switch from their childhood standing during a same rate celebrated in new consult data.

Based on projection assumptions from a United Nations Population Division, this investigate projects that life outlook during birth will gradually boost in all countries. There is no high, middle or low arrogance given any country, regardless of a stream mercantile condition, is insincere to be relocating toward improved vital standards and, therefore, longer life outlook during birth. Following a 2015 rider of UN projection assumptions, gender-specific differences in mankind are introduced formed on a UN assumptions of life outlook by sex.

Disclaimers about projections

Some cautionary disproportion are in order. Population projections are estimates built on stream competition information and assumptions about demographic trends. The destiny of a Muslim competition in Europe will be shabby by mercantile and domestic resources in Europe that impact a feasibility and appropriateness of immigration, as good as resources outward Europe, including domestic upheavals and armed conflicts that could furnish flight surges. The destiny of Muslim and non-Muslim populations also competence be shabby by systematic discoveries, environmental hurdles and other changes that could change demographic trends in variable ways.

Estimating flight is difficult. Projecting it is even harder. The mass transformation of people can be a outcome of several opposite lift and lift factors, including economics, politics and conflict. Predictions are tough to make and when astonishing migration-related events occur, as they have in and around Europe during a past few years, remarkable change can immediately change a number, origins and destinations of destiny migrants.

These flight uncertainties have been partial of educational discussions for years. Most recently they were complicated by Oxford University’s Global Migration Futures project. This investigate brought together flight experts to map flight factors that could have a biggest impact on destiny flight flows into and out of European countries. They also categorized these factors by their turn of uncertainty. Several of a factors concerned changes in Europe’s economy, a domestic formation (or intensity disintegration) of a European Union and dispute in surrounding regions.

The projections in this news are not meant to foresee a future, yet instead benefaction estimates for a eremite combination of Europe underneath 3 flight scenarios to communicate a operation of “what if” outcomes.

The middle and high projection scenarios in this news assume that in a future, a countries promulgation migrants to Europe will sojourn a same as they have been in new years. Of course, this will not be accurately correct. What will be material for a distance of a Muslim competition in Europe will be possibly countries promulgation migrants in a destiny continue to be countries with vast Muslim populations. For example, if Turkey replaces Syria as a tip nation of start in a future, this would continue to boost Muslim numbers, given an liquid of migrants from Canada or China substantially would not have a same outcome on Muslim numbers. And while Africa’s vast Muslim populations tend to be geographically closer to Europe than a vast Christian populations, a change in a eremite brew of Africans entering Europe could also have a vast impact.

Input information for competition projections

The demographic projections in this news use information on age and sex composition, fertility, mortality, eremite switching and migration. This territory describes how these information were collected and standardised for use in a projections.

Estimating age and sex structures

Religious connection varies by age. In this section, a word “age structure” is used as shorthand to impute to a eremite combination of age-sex groups. In sequence to calculate a median ages of eremite groups and lift out competition projections, researchers fabricated age structures for Muslims and non-Muslims in any country. Data on age structures were collected in 20 age categories (measured in five-year increments with a tip value of 95 and above) for males and females (e.g., males ages 15 to 19), ensuing in a sum of 40 categories.

Researchers assembled initial age structures by examining consult datasets, census datasets and tables published by census agencies. While censuses customarily enumerate sacrament for a whole population, including children, ubiquitous competition surveys do not customarily embody interviews with children. Since age structures need eremite connection information for children, children were reserved eremite affiliations when compulsory formed on a best methods available, including estimating a eremite connection of children formed on a flood patterns and eremite connection of women of childbearing age, as good as information about a eremite connection of a youngest respondents totalled in a survey.

Estimating fertility

In many countries, there are estimable differences in a array of children innate to Muslim and non-Muslim women. Furthermore, groups mostly change in a share of women in their competition who are of childbearing age, and women in some groups may, on average, start carrying children during younger or comparison ages than do women in other groups. These differences in childbearing patterns, age structure and flood timing mix to furnish differences in a rates during that babies are innate to Muslims and non-Muslims.

Fertility information were collected from censuses and surveys, and flood rates were estimated around proceed and surreptitious measures. Some censuses and surveys directly magnitude new births or a array of children a lady has ever borne by a time of a survey. In other cases, flood information were collected indirectly, for example, by regulating information on a age of a mother’s children to guess her past birth patterns. These several sources of flood information were used to guess age-specific and sum flood rates for Muslims and non-Muslims in any country.

Fertility rates were estimated for a 2010 to 2015 duration and projected brazen to successive time durations with differences between Muslims and non-Muslims solemnly converging. In a deficiency of information on a flood rates of new Muslim migrants, they are insincere to have a prevalent flood rates of other Muslims in their end countries.

The estimates of differential flood for Muslims and non-Muslims in a 30 countries of this news are a same as those estimated for a 2015 “Future of World Religions” report.

Life expectancy

Each country’s projected mankind patterns are formed on UN mankind tables for a country. Little investigate has been conducted on cross-national differences in mankind and life outlook opposite eremite groups. In a deficiency of improved data, a same mankind patterns within any nation are insincere for Muslims and non-Muslims. Muslims in many European nations have less preparation than non-Muslims, that could be compared with revoke life expectancy, yet a vast share of many European Muslim populations are first-generation migrants, and being a first-generation migrant is infrequently compared with health advantages and longer life outlook relations to native-born residents of end countries (for example, Hispanic migrants to a United States have advantages compared with those innate in a U.S.).

Estimating eremite switching

Studies of eremite switching prove that this materialisation is mostly strong in immature adult years, roughly between a ages of 15 and 29. Change in eremite connection competence start as immature adults pierce divided from their kin and forge their possess temperament or partner with someone of a opposite connection status. While some eremite switching competence take place during other ages, switching is modeled as a life march materialisation in that some immature adults change their eremite connection status. There competence be some time durations during that people of all ages are disposed to eremite switching, such as when domestic resources in a nation inspire or daunt eremite temperament or miss of eremite identity. Our models do not try to embody such duration effects.

Sources of switching data

The customary procession for measuring eremite switching is to review a sacrament in that a chairman grew adult with their stream sacrament (when a chairman is an adult). The best sources of information on eremite switching are nationally deputy surveys that ask adults about their stream sacrament and a sacrament in that they were raised. These surveys typically have representation sizes between 1,000 and 3,000 respondents. Unfortunately, while censuses and large-scale demographic surveys mostly magnitude stream eremite affiliation, they generally do not magnitude eremite origins, so they can't be used to directly magnitude eremite switching. (Censuses in Northern Ireland and Scotland are exceptions.)

In 22 countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and a United Kingdom), adequate consult information are accessible on both a eremite upbringing of consult respondents and on stream adult eremite identity.11 Data on patterns of switching from non-Muslim religions to Islam come from a International Social Survey Program. In France, information on patterns of switching out of Islam among those lifted Muslim come from a Trajectories and Origins survey, that found that approximately 10% of those lifted Muslim after switched to no eremite connection or to some other religion. Because other European countries miss sufficient information to magnitude patterns of switching out of Islam, a French settlement is borrowed for other Western European countries. Thus, in Western Europe, projections indication that roughly 10% of rising cohorts of children lifted in Islam will switch out of a faith as adults.

Since group and women mostly follow opposite switching patterns, researchers distributed rates of switching alone for group and women formed on a practice of adults ages 18 to 54 during a time of a survey. Researchers assume that a knowledge of immature respondents is a best source of information about approaching switching patterns for rising generations, so a practice of comparison respondents (those ages 55 and above) are expelled from a analysis. The research was primarily singular to a switching knowledge of 30- to 54-year-olds; while this limitation authorised a concentration to be on respondents who have recently finished their immature adult years, it left less-than-optimal representation sizes. Including a full operation of adults ages 18 to 54 in a representation increasing representation sizes and did not seem to concede a trustworthiness of a switching rates.

The estimates of eremite switching for Muslims and non-Muslims in a 30 countries of this news are a same as those estimated for a 2015 “Future of World Religions” report.

Estimating and lifted a distance and eremite combination of unchanging migrants

To indication a impact of flight on destiny eremite change, a competition projections in this news compulsory an guess of a eremite combination of new migrant flows between countries. That is, how many migrants relocating from nation X to nation Y are Muslim? How many have some other eremite identity? Data on a distance and eremite relapse of migrant flows were pieced together in dual steps. The initial step was to guess how many people pierce to and from any nation in a world. Second, a eremite combination of migrants relocating between countries was estimated.

Generally speaking, there is many improved information on migrant “stocks” (how many foreign-born people reside in any country, and where they were born) than there is on migrant “flows” (how many people pierce between countries any year). The singular upsurge information that are accessible competence not constraint all modes of transport or all kinds of ubiquitous migrants, and it can be formidable to heed short-term transport from long-term migration. Since information on flight flows are incomplete, data on migrant bonds for 2010 and 2015, estimated by a United Nations, were used to guess flight flows for both males and females.12 Demographer Guy Abel grown an innovative technique to guess flight flows between countries regulating this batch data.13 Using experimental information and celebrated regularities in a age patterns of flight flows, researchers were means to disaggregate any estimated sum upsurge into subtotals by five-year age groups. The shared flows estimated formed on a UN migrant batch information embody asylum-seeking and regular, non-asylum-seeking migration. Although a UN information embody interloper batch estimates from a Office of a UN High Commissioner for Refugees, a latest UN migrant batch information (released in Dec 2015) was prepared too early to constraint a vast volume of haven seeker flows that arrived late in a 2010 to 2015 interval. Since Eurostat provides updated measures of haven seeker flows, Eurostat is a source of haven seeker information in this news and UN information were manually practiced to revoke upsurge estimates (such as a upsurge from Syria to Sweden) approaching to have been mostly stoical of haven seekers. Thus, practiced information from Guy J. Abel, formed on UN stock estimates, became a source for estimating unchanging migration; interloper flows, practiced formed on rejecting rates, were estimated alone formed on Eurostat haven seeker data.

Another step was to brand a eremite relapse of migrants. The eremite combination of migrants is not always a same as a eremite combination of a ubiquitous competition in their nation of origin. In many cases, members of some eremite groups are some-more approaching than others to leave a country, and they are also some-more approaching to select certain end countries. Religious minorities, in particular, competence be disproportionately approaching to quit to a nation in that their sacrament is in a majority. The eremite relapse for a transformation of migrants is drawn from Pew Research Center’s Global Religion and Migration Database – that has estimates of a eremite relapse of migrant populations formed on tellurian census and consult information.

Using all of this information, researchers distributed flight rates to and from countries by age, sex and religion. Using flight rates instead of competition depends allows for a some-more energetic indication of destiny migration. As countries boost or diminution in distance and their eremite combination changes, a flight rates will furnish analogous changes in a distance and eremite combination of migrant flows.

Estimating haven seekers

Estimates of haven seekers and refugees are formed on Pew Research Center’s research of Eurostat information on applications for asylum. Eurostat is Europe’s statistical agency, a executive repository for high-quality competition and other data. Eurostat collects information from 28 EU countries and 4 European Free Trade Association countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) on a array of applications for haven submitted, withdrawn, supposed and rejected, and it creates these depends accessible to a public. These publicly accessible depends of haven seekers by focus standing are not related together, however, so it is not probable for analysts to lane people or cohorts of field by a process.

The estimates of a array of haven seekers in this news are formed on first-time applications for asylum, practiced for withdrawals (read some-more about cold applications below). First-time field are those who have never formerly practical for insurance within a country, as against to field who are appealing a before decision.

Applications are done during a sold level, rather than during a domicile level. Thus, any person, regardless of age or family relationship, is compulsory to contention an focus for asylum. Applications are not a same as arrivals. It can take several months for newly arrived asylum seekers to make grave applications for haven and turn enclosed in haven applicant statistics.

Adjusting for withdrawals

Importantly, field are not always requesting for insurance in Europe for a initial time, and competence record applications in some-more than one country. Countries in a EU, as good as Norway and Switzerland, have concluded to a Dublin Regulation, that states that haven seekers are to request for interloper standing in a initial European nation they enter. The Dublin Regulation is dictated to forestall mixed applications and revoke a array of haven seekers relocating from nation to country, yet it was partially dangling in 2015. Consequently, many asylum-seekers trafficked by Greece, creation their proceed north and west to Germany and other destinations regulating a track by several Balkan countries and by EU countries, such as Hungary and Austria. Some haven seekers practical for interloper standing in movement countries, infrequently unwillingly, before creation it to their preferred destination. Many haven seekers who practical in Hungary and Bulgaria, for example, after had their applications withdrawn.

To guess a array of haven seekers, rates of cold applications by nationality and nation of focus span were distributed from Eurostat’s cold focus information and subtracted from a sum array of first-time (within country) applications for asylum. Applications are cold possibly intentionally by field or automatically whenever an applicant fails to finish a successive step of a focus process. These cold applications are not enclosed in this report’s depends of haven seekers given it is approaching that haven seekers who withdrew their applications possibly left Europe or practical in another country. Removing cold applications avoids double counting of haven seekers.

Estimating interloper counts

Refugee depends are estimated formed on Eurostat’s quarterly preference information on authorized first-time haven applications.14 Rates formed on acceptances between start nation X and end nation Y were practical to any nationality and nation of focus pair. Applicants who have been accepted, or whose applications are tentative and are approaching to be supposed formed on applicants’ nationality and nation of focus are counted as refugees for Pew Research Center’s estimates. Acceptance rates were formed on all certain decisions. No distinctions are done formed on a kind or length of stay or charitable insurance standing postulated to a applicant.

Estimating a eremite combination of haven seekers

Though eremite temperament is frequently applicable and supposing in haven applications, applicant eremite connection is not collected for a possess consequence and a publicly accessible information from Eurostat do not embody information on applicant religion. This report’s estimates of eremite connection of haven seekers and refugees are therefore formed on eremite demographic information from other sources.

In some cases, a eremite combination of migrants are estimated formed on a eremite combination of their nation of origin, and a models in this news assume that migrants are a pointless preference of people from a nation with courtesy to religion. When available, information on a eremite combination of before flight flows by nationality and nation of focus pairs is employed from Pew Research Center’s Global Religion and Migration Database. In a latter case, models assume that new migrants’ eremite combination is some-more identical to past migrants’ from that nation of start than a nation of origin’s altogether eremite makeup.

Return flight for refugees

This news does not categorically indication a lapse flight of refugees after they have staid in Europe formed on a arrogance (and chronological precedent) that even if conditions urge in a nation they left, many will continue to remain.15 This arrogance is formed on a knowledge of waves of Turks and North Africans who came to Europe during times of labor necessity in a 1950s and 1960s and continued to sojourn in Europe even when European economies had fewer jobs for them during a 1970s. As remarkable by flight academician Philip Martin, “There is 0 some-more permanent than proxy workers.” Even yet a proclivity among refugees for entrance to Europe competence differ than guest workers in progressing decades, interloper families are not approaching to dig themselves in vast numbers to lapse to their home countries. However, if countries make a proxy authorised standing of some interloper decisions, afterwards influential repatriation, like intentional returns, could diminish a estimates in this report. While a preference not to indication lapse flight for refugees could have a outcome of inflating destiny Muslim competition projections to some degree, this disposition competence be counterbalanced by a regressive diagnosis of haven seekers who are not approaching to primarily advantage authorised standing to sojourn in Europe (discussed below).

Estimating authorised dilapidation populations

Finally, new rejecting rates accessible by Eurostat were used to guess a array of people in Europe who have practical for haven yet have not been and are doubtful to be postulated authorised interloper status. This is a competition of haven seekers in authorised limbo, for whom a destiny is uncertain. Many field who are primarily deserted will interest their decisions, and some competence eventually be authorized to live and work in Europe as stable refugees. Others will leave, willingly or by forced deportation. Still others will obtain another authorised status, for instance by tyro or workman visa programs. The competition of Muslims estimated to be in authorised dilapidation in 2016 is not counted in a estimates or projections in this report. Some will no doubt stay in Europe, legally or illegally. Not counting this competition creates a projections conservative. This regressive disposition competence assistance change a arrogance that refugees postulated stay in Europe will not lapse (see preceding section).

Using projections for 2016 estimates and beyond

Generally speaking, many of a 2016 Muslim estimates in this news are a outcome of projections from 2010 that comment for Muslim and non-Muslim differences in age structure, fertility, eremite switching and unchanging migration.16 Additionally, a 2016 sum embody estimates of Muslim refugees who came to Europe between mid-2010 and mid-2016. In some cases, 2015 or 2016 supervision information for Muslim populations were used rather than projections from 2010. For example, a news from a German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees on a year-end 2015 distance of a Muslim competition in Germany was a basement for a midyear 2016 guess in Germany (our guess also incorporates expansion in a competition from a ongoing upsurge of refugees in a initial half of 2016).

Projection scenarios for 2016 to 2050

To prominence how opposite flight patterns competence change a landscape of Europe’s Muslim population, a usually cause that varies in a 2016 to 2050 projection scenarios is migration. The 0 flight unfolding assumes there will be no flight to or from any of a 30 countries after midyear 2016. Recent story given mid-2016 suggests this unfolding will not be a picturesque indication of flight outcomes. However, a advantage of this unfolding is to prominence how factors other than flight would be approaching to change Muslim competition numbers in Europe. The middle unfolding models change that would be approaching if usually unchanging flight (i.e., no haven seeker flows) continued, following a estimated patterns of nation start and end upsurge from a 2010 to 2015 duration that were used to make 2010 to 2016 projections. The high flight scenario adds an ongoing upsurge of interloper levels seen between a commencement of 2014 and mid-2016 (i.e., a delay of what some have described as a “refugee crisis”) in serve to unchanging migrants. For example, in a high scenario, Germany is projected to accept 200,000 Muslim and 30,000 non-Muslim refugees annually given these are a annual normal of a estimated numbers of refugees Germany perceived from Jan 2014 by Jun 2016.

Sex balancing in high flight scenario

Recent flows of haven seekers have been dominated by immature group (roughly 70% to 75% of haven seekers have been male). Under certain conditions, refugees who obtain charitable insurance standing are entitled to family reunification. If stream refugees are means to move family members to Europe, this could boost a womanlike share of destiny interloper flows as spouses, children and other kin join existent refugees.

Information on a family combination (including marital status) of existent refugees is not available, so family reunification has to be modeled hypothetically rather than on a sold family characteristics of refugees. The proceed used in these projections assumes many refugees will find to move family members and/or spouses who share their informative credentials (i.e., from their home country) rather than building new family structures in a horde society.

Gender change ratio targets were combined for any of a 30 countries formed on 2011 competition census information about a batch of a foreign-born competition many-sided by Eurostat by nationality and nation of focus pairs. This assumes that over time, family reunification for refugees could assent a gender change of refugees in a nation to proceed a gender change of first-generation immigrants in a country. Typically, a 2011 bonds of first-generation immigrants in Europe were roughly gender balanced, with women generally creation adult 44% to 55% of this population, depending on a nationality and nation of application.

For refugees projected to arrive until mid-2025, a upsurge of refugees in a 15-to-49 age categories is insincere to have a gender combination that will element a batch of refugees who arrived given 2010 so that by 2025, a altogether batch of refugees (since 2010) of reproductive age in any nation will be roughly gender-balanced. After 2025, a high flight unfolding assumes that serve flows of refugees will be gender-balanced.



  1. For a 50-country Europe segment in “The Future of World Religions,” a Muslim competition in 2010 was estimated to be 43.5 million (when Cyprus – that is partial of a European Union yet is not enclosed in Europe in that news – is combined in, a sum rises to 43.7 million). Of a remaining 20 countries expelled from this report, a many material disproportion is a deficiency of Russia, that had an estimated 14.3 million Muslims in 2010.
    When Muslim estimates used in “The Future of World Religions” news are many-sided for a 30 countries in this report, a 2010 sum is 21.2 million (and 22.2 million for a remaining 20 countries, including Russia). In this report, a 2010 guess for a distance of a Muslim competition in a EU, Norway and Switzerland is 19.5 million. The nation guess that is many opposite between reports is Germany. “The Future of World Religions” had a aloft guess of Germany’s Muslim competition in 2010 (4.8 million) given it relied on estimates of Germany’s altogether competition distance that research of a 2011 census found to be farfetched (see contention of Germany in a successive section). Based on research of new supervision data, this news estimates Germany’s Muslim competition in 2010 to have been 3.3 million.
  2. The report formed on a Institut Montaigne consult does not guess a sum distance of a Muslim population, including children, yet information from a consult endorse that Muslim shares are many aloft among a youngest respondents than among comparison French respondents. If a occurrence of Muslim temperament among those younger than 15 years aged in France is identical to occurrence among respondents ages 15 to 17 in a survey, afterwards when that occurrence rate and a occurrence rate for other cohorts in a consult are double by a distance of any conspirator in 2016, a guess for a sum competition is an altogether occurrence rate somewhat subsequent 8%. This report’s projection formed on a Trajectories and Origins baseline is that a Muslim occurrence rate reached 8.8% in 2016. Working with a same baseline consult data, French demographer Michèle Tribalat finds estimates of France’s Muslim competition formed on a 2016 Ifop/Montaigne information to be conservative.
  3. “The Future of World Religions” news had a aloft estimates of Germany’s Muslim competition in 2010 (4.8 million) given it relied on estimates of Germany’s altogether competition distance that research of 2011 census found to be farfetched (see contention of Germany in a successive section). Based on research of new supervision data, this news estimates Germany’s Muslim competition in 2010 to have been 3.3 million.
  4. In European countries with longstanding Muslim populations that have prolonged co-resided with non-Muslims, Muslims still tend to have modestly some-more children than non-Muslims, even after determining for socioeconomic differences. See Stonawski, Marcin and Michaela Potančoková and Vegard Skirbekk. 2016. “Fertility Patterns of Native and Migrant Muslims in Europe.” Population, Space and Place.
  5. Switching information were not accessible for Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Romania.
  6. This proceed is described in Abel, Guy J. Forthcoming. “Estimates of Global Bilateral Migration Flows by Gender between 1960 and 2015.” International Migration Review.
  7. See Abel, Guy J. 2013. “Estimating tellurian flight upsurge tables regulating place of birth data.” Demographic Research. Also see Abel, Guy J. and Nikola Sander. 2014. “Quantifying Global International Migration Flows.” Science.
  8. Appeal rates are some-more formidable to beget over a array of years. Application acceptance rates used in this investigate do not take into comment haven seekers who competence after be postulated accede to stay in Europe after an appeal. Consequently, acceptance rates used in this investigate are conservative.
  9. General flight out of European countries, formed on flight estimates subsequent from Guy Abel’s research of United Nations flight batch data, is partial of all projection scenarios solely a no flight scenario. These flight estimates assume that patterns from a 2010-2015 duration will continue.
  10. Projections of eremite projections from Pew Research Center typically use five-year projection increments. In sequence to news on Muslim competition estimates after a vast liquid of haven seekers in 2015 and 2016, midyear 2016 estimates are formed on interloper estimates, projections from 2010 to 2015 as good as roughly one-fifth of a change projected for a 2015 to 2020 period.