REPRESENTATION: Why Poor People in Texas End Up on Death Row and Face Execution


on Mar 24, 2023

  • Arbitrariness
  • Representation

  • Texas

An in-depth square in a Huffington Post examines Harris County’s (Texas) complement for providing illustration to those confronting a genocide chastisement who can't means their possess attorney. The routine is explored by a story of Obel Cruz-Garcia, a restrained on Texas’ genocide row.

The author described his case: “Like many people who finish adult on genocide row, Cruz-Garcia could not means to sinecure a warn for a resource-intensive routine of a collateral trial, and Harris County, Texas, doesn’t offer open defenders in genocide chastisement cases. Instead, he was allocated a private invulnerability warn named R.P. ‘Skip’ Cornelius, who done a vital billing a county to paint some-more than 100 bankrupt clients a year. Cornelius was paid a prosaic price to paint Cruz-Garcia, regardless of how most time he spent operative on a case.”

Drawing on an review by KHOU-TV, a author reported that, “Cornelius’ caseload mostly exceeded both a discipline for collateral and noncapital cases simultaneously. According to KHOU, Cornelius done about $1.9 million in 8 years — an normal of $237,500 a year — representing people who were too bad to sinecure a lawyer.” David Carroll, a former investigate executive for a National Legal Aid and Defender Association, told KHOU: “I’ve never seen an profession able of doing that whole effort and giving effective illustration in each singular case.”

Indigent collateral defendants in Texas generally accept allocated warn from a register of private attorneys. The Huffington Post
article uttered a regard that judges might designate attorneys who present to their choosing campaigns during aloft rates than other equally competent attorneys and prioritize invulnerability attorneys who transparent cases fast and inexpensively.

The essay draws on a knowledge of Jim Marcus, a clinical highbrow during a University of Texas School of Law, paraphrasing: “Judges typically like a complement of appointing private invulnerability lawyers to bankrupt cases since it gives them some-more control over how a box unfolds.” Moreover, “When invulnerability lawyers are contingent on judges for income from appointments, there is an inducement to abandon dear and time-consuming inquisitive work and instead keep cases relocating along quickly. This complement works good for members of a invulnerability bar, who can make hundreds of thousands of dollars a year by holding on mountainous caseloads. And prosecutors, of course, like confronting reduction antithesis in a courtroom.” According to Marcus, “Everybody wins — solely for a clients.”

The jury in Obel Cruz-Garcia’s box reached a chastisement outcome after one day of deliberations: he was condemned to death.



Jessica Schulberg, A Matter of Life and Death, Huffington Post, Mar. 122023.

New Podcast: Protecting Especially Vulnerable Defendants from a Death Penalty—A Discussion with Karen Steele


on Mar 23, 2023

  • Juveniles
  • Mental Illness
  • Race

In a latest part of “Discussions with DPIC,” Robert Dunham, former Executive Director of DPIC, interviews Karen Steele (pictured), a researcher and invulnerability profession in Oregon, per a special characteristics of late girl defendants confronting a genocide penalty. Research by Steele and others points to a deficient mind growth in those aged 18-21 and how that can be exacerbated in those pang from fetal ethanol spectrum disorder. The investigate has also found that late-adolescent defendants of tone are disproportionately condemned to death.

Ms. Steele discusses her commentary as a co-author of a study examining a secular disparities in genocide chastisement cases involving youthful and late girl defendants. The justification has led her and others to suggest that late teenagers be free from a genocide penalty. Steele stated, “[A]rbitrarily sketch a line (for death-sentencing eligibility) during age 18, or 17-and-364 days misses too much, in terms of a same culpability-diminishing characteristics that a justice has already relied on to free a under-18 category from eligibility for collateral punishment,” generally when adding in a interplay with secular disparities.

Steele draws a identical tie between a disabilities of defendants with fetal ethanol spectrum commotion and defendants of color. She explains that a developmental and cognitive issues occurring when fetal alcoholism is benefaction are like those gifted by late adolescents: “There’s a together between those clients and my clients with fetal ethanol spectrum commotion since we’re articulate about invisible things that revoke blame though are not nonetheless manifest to a eyes. Black girl are disadvantaged since they are viewed as some-more mature. And Black late-adolescents, they are viewed as some-more mature than even white late-adolescents.”

You can listen to a podcast here.

Federal Government Announces Withdrawal of Intent to Seek Death in North Dakota Case


on Mar 22, 2023

On Mar 14, 2023, during a instruction of Attorney General Merrick Garland (pictured), a U.S. Attorney for a District of North Dakota withdrew a notice of vigilant to find a genocide judgment for Alfonso Rodriguez, Jr., who had been convicted in 2006 of a 2003 abduction and murdering of college tyro Dru Sjodin. Rodriguez had creatively been condemned to genocide in 2007, though U.S. District Court Judge Ralph Erickson topsy-turvy a genocide judgment since of dubious testimony presented during hearing from a coroner and failures of invulnerability warn to try mental health issues.

Judge Erickson resolved a medical investigator was “guessing” on a mount and that his testimony was “unreliable, dubious and inaccurate.” Regarding a invulnerability attorneys, a decider pronounced that not entirely exploring a mental health of their client, including justification of serious post-traumatic highlight disorder, might have cost him a probable stupidity defense. Rodriguez will now offer a life judgment but parole.

The preference to repel a government’s vigilant to find genocide came one day after a federal jury in New York City announced it could not strech a outcome for genocide in a hearing of Sayfullo Saipov, who had murdered 8 people in an act of terrorism. Saipov will now accept a judgment of life but release for a crime. Garland had progressing announced a reason on all sovereign executions while a routine is being re-examined.


Jim Monk, Feds with­draw genocide penal­ty for Rodriguez, pros­e­cu­tor calls deci­sion a grave aspersion to jus­tice’, KVRR Local News, Mar 14, 2023; UNITED STATES ATTORNEY’S OFFICE DIRECTED TO WITHDRAW DEATH PENALTY NOTICE IN RODRIGUEZ CASE, U.S. Attorney’s Office District of North Dakota, Mar 14, 2023; Judge toss­es genocide sen­tence in 03 slay­ing of Dru Sjodin, Associated Press, Sep 72021.

California to Close San Quentin’s Death Row as Part of a Broader Prison Reform


on Mar 21, 2023

  • Sentencing Alternatives
  • Conditions on Death Row

  • California

Death-sentenced prisoners in California will be changed out of San Quentin State Prison (pictured) and placed in other limit confidence facilities, as partial of a extended devise announced by Governor Gavin Newsom on Mar 17, 2023. The administrator seeks to “transform” a state’s oldest jail into “a one-of-a-kind trickery focused on improving open reserve by reconstruction and education.” The state launched a commander module in 2020 permitting some death-row prisoners to willingly pierce to other state prisons. Under that program, some-more than 100 death-row prisoners have already been eliminated out of San Quentin. The pierce does not revoke a prisoners’ sentences.

Under a existing program, death-row prisoners are “carefully screened to establish either they can safely participate” in a transfer, according to a Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. That has enclosed a examination of prisoners’ behavioral records, medical and psychiatric needs, and other reserve concerns. Their conditions of bonds would afterwards be identical to that of prisoners portion life but parole, that embody a event to attend in jail practice and other reconstruction activities. Nevertheless, advocates have emphasized a need to pledge eliminated prisoners’ accessibility to counsel, a courts, and suitable health care.

Governor Newsom imposed a moratorium
on executions in 2019. Although a state has a nation’s largest death-row population, it has not carried out an execution given 2006.



Dustin Gardiner and Bob Egelko, Newsom wants to reimag­ine San Quentin State Prison, will pierce Death Row inmates out, San Francisco Chronicle, Mar 16, 2023; Janie Har and Sophie Austin, California will reconstitute San Quentin prison, empha­siz­ing rehab, Associated Press, Mar 16, 2023; Don Thompson, California moves to dis­man­tle nation’s largest genocide row, Associated Press, Jan 312022.

Read Governor Newsom’s state­ment announc­ing a change.

INTERNATIONAL: Longest Serving Death Row Prisoner in a World Has Case Reversed


on Mar 20, 2023

  • International
  • Time on Death Row

On Mar 13, 2023 in Japan, Tokyo’s High Court postulated a retrial for Iwao Hakamada, a former fighter famous as a “longest portion genocide row” restrained in a world. He was convicted of murder in 1968. Hideaki Nakagawa, Director of Amnesty International Japan, described a statute as a “long-overdue possibility to broach some probity to Hakamada.”

Although Hakamada had primarily denied a charges brought opposite him, he claimed he after confessed to a military after being subjected to heartless interrogations and beatings. After a genocide judgment was imposed, he attempted to redress his confession.

A district justice postulated him a retrial in 2014, though that statute was overturned by Tokyo’s High Court in 2016. The country’s Supreme Court afterwards ruled that a Tokyo High Court contingency recur a decision. Hakamada’s sister, Hideko, said: “I was watchful for this day for 57 years and it has come.” Iwao Hakamada is now 87 years old.

The normal time on genocide row from sentencing to execution in a U.S. has grown extremely from about 6 years in 1985 to over 20 years in 2019.


Saim Dušan Inayatullah, Japan orders retri­al of male sen­tenced to genocide in 1968, DW, Mar 132023

LAW REVIEWS— Decency Comes Full Circle: The Constitutional Demand to End Permanent Solitary Confinement on Death Row


on Mar 16, 2023

  • Conditions on Death Row
  • Time on Death Row

A 2022 essay in a Columbia Journal of Law Social Problems presents both a chronological overview of a use of death-row capture in a U.S. and a commentary of a consult of a conditions on genocide rows in any office with collateral punishment in America. Regarding a use of rarely limiting confinement, a author states that “the complement of permanent unique capture on genocide quarrel has conjunction a weight of story nor a support of a infancy in possibly contemporary use or amicable values.”

The consult of conditions in a several states found: “Of a twenty-seven state jurisdictions now handling genocide rows, approximately half (fourteen) levy possibly permanent or semi-solitary capture (i.e., an normal of during slightest twenty hours of unique capture per day) on people condemned to death. Of these states, eleven keep genocide quarrel race in permanent unique confinement.” The article’s Appendix contains impending sum on a conditions on any genocide quarrel in a country.

The author records that a use of unique capture on genocide quarrel emerged “without a judge, jury, or legislature grouping it,” and that “many of a scarcely dual and a half thousand people on America’s genocide rows will spend an normal of 7 thousand days hermetic for twenty-three hours behind a plain steel door, inside a windowless dungeon a distance of a parking space.”

The essay discusses a new trend divided from permanent unique capture in many states, with some jurisdictions observation it by a Eighth Amendment’s lens of a “evolving standards of decency” in last what constitutes vicious and surprising punishment. Nine jurisdictions have taken stairs to finish permanent unique capture over a past 6 years (including Virginia, that subsequently abolished collateral punishment), while no state has imposed harsher genocide quarrel conditions. The author records that “senior corrections officials in jurisdictions that have reformed or semi-reformed genocide rows zodiacally praised a change.”



Brandon Vines, Decency Comes Full Circle: The Constitutional Demand to End Permanent Solitary Confinement on Death Row, 56 Columbia Journal of Law  Social Problems 591, Fall, 2022 (note).

MENTAL ILLNESS: Sally Satel op-ed: “The Flawed Case for Executing a Mentally Ill”


on Mar 17, 2023

  • Mental Illness
  • New Voices

In an op-ed for a National Review, psychiatrist Sally Satel writes, “No courteous or official purpose is served by executing a exceedingly mentally ill.” Satel is a comparison associate during a American Enterprise Institute, and she highlights a deficits in a stream authorised complement that assent collateral sentences and executions for those pang from serious mental illness. “The mandate to validate for a stupidity invulnerability set a bar so high that few mentally ill defendants can accommodate it,” she writes. “There needs to be a center belligerent for mentally ill defendants who do not accommodate a standards for a stupidity invulnerability though who, since their logic is too impaired, can't be hold entirely obliged for their crime. They should face life seizure or, what would be some-more compassionate, capture for life to a psychiatric facility, though not a genocide penalty.”

Satel cites a box of Andre Thomas, a Texas death-row restrained who has prolonged suffered from mental illness so strident that he regularly lame himself and is now blind. Although a U.S. Supreme Court has taboo collateral punishment for those with egghead incapacity (Atkins v. Virginia, 2002) and exempted those “who destroy to know a reason for their approaching demise” (Panetti v. Quarterman, 2007), “no justice has ever addressed a some-more elemental matter: a eligibility of someone as mentally ill as Thomas, clearly crazy during a time of a crime, to accept a genocide judgment in a initial place,.”

Satel argues that “The same legal sensibility can and should request to exceedingly mentally ill defendants,” and she urges state legislatures to adopt legislation such as that in Ohio that exempts those with serious mental illness from a genocide sentence. She also advocates for justice action: “When an suitable box comes before a Supreme Court, it should appreciate a Eighth Amendment as exclusive execution of mentally ill people whose joining of murder was a outcome of their demented thinking. If this were already a law of a land — or of Texas — we would not be looking during a probability that Andre Thomas competence be executed.”


Sally Satel, The Flawed Case for Executing a Mentally Ill, National Review, Mar 122023

Americans Feel More Positive Than Negative About Jews, Mainline Protestants, Catholics

Most are neutral toward several groups; devout Christians noticed negatively, on balance, by non-evangelical Americans

Pew Research Center conducted this consult to try Americans’ attitudes toward a accumulation of eremite groups as partial of a broader bid to investigate tolerance, farrago and pluralism in American society. For this report, we surveyed 10,588 U.S. adults from Sept. 13-18, 2022. All respondents to a consult are partial of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online consult row that is recruited by inhabitant pointless sampling of residential addresses. This proceed scarcely all U.S. adults have a possibility of selection. The consult is weighted to be deputy of a U.S. adult competition by gender, race, ethnicity, narrow-minded affiliation, education, eremite connection and other categories. For more, review the ATP’s methodology and the methodology for this report.

Read a full questions used in this report.

Far some-more Americans demonstrate auspicious than adverse views of Jews, mainline Protestants and Catholics, according to a new Pew Research Center consult that measures U.S. adults’ extended sentiments toward several eremite groups.

At a other finish of a spectrum, some-more Americans demonstrate disastrous than certain attitudes toward atheists, Muslims and Mormons (members of a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints).

Chart shows some-more Americans perspective Jews, mainline Protestants and Catholics agreeably rather than unfavorably

Some consult respondents might find it bizarre or formidable to be asked to rate an whole organisation of people. Indeed, many Americans give a neutral response – or name not to answer a doubt – when asked about some eremite groups. For example, about six-in-ten U.S. adults (59%) contend they reason “neither auspicious nor unfavorable” views of Muslims or “don’t know adequate to say,” while 17% demonstrate really or rather auspicious views of Muslims and 22% demonstrate really or rather adverse views of a group.  

The patterns are influenced in partial by a distance of a groups asked about, given people tend to rate their possess eremite organisation positively. This means that a largest groups – such as Catholics and devout Christians – get a lot of auspicious ratings usually from their possess members. One proceed to adjust for this is to inspect how people rate all eremite groups except their own.

Looking during a information this way, it is transparent that non-Catholic Americans have a net certain perspective of Catholics. But there is a large disproportion between a proceed that devout Christians are rated by a whole open (including roughly one-quarter of U.S. adults who news themselves as born-again or devout Protestants) and a proceed they are rated by people who are not evangelicals.

Overall, matching shares of a whole open contend they perspective devout Christians agreeably (28%) and unfavorably (27%). But among Americans who are not themselves born-again or devout Protestants, a change of opinion is many some-more disastrous (32% adverse vs. 18% favorable). Some of this perspective is tied adult with politics: Democrats who are not born-again or devout Protestants are distant some-more expected than non-evangelical Republicans to perspective evangelicals negatively (47% vs. 14%, respectively).

On a whole, 35% of Americans demonstrate really or rather auspicious attitudes toward Jews, while 6% demonstrate adverse attitudes. (Jews make adult such a small apportionment of a U.S. population – about 2% – that incompatible their possess views creates small disproportion in altogether open opinion toward Jews.) The certain open opinion toward Jews might not tell a whole story, however: A 2020 consult of Jewish Americans found perceptions of rising antisemitism in a United States, and other organizations have reported an boost in antisemitic incidents.

Americans altogether also demonstrate some-more auspicious than adverse attitudes toward mainline Protestants (30% auspicious vs. 10% unfavorable) and Catholics (34% auspicious vs. 18% unfavorable).

On a other hand, a change of opinion is disastrous in a box of Mormons. A entertain of Americans contend they reason really or rather adverse views of Mormons, while 15% demonstrate auspicious opinions. Views toward atheists and Muslims also are rather negative, on balance, with some-more stating adverse than auspicious opinions of any group.

More than half of Americans contend they possibly feel neutral about, or do not know adequate to rate, mainline Protestants (59%), Muslims (59%), Mormons (59%), Jews (58%) and atheists (55%). Smaller shares – nonetheless still pluralities – do not register auspicious or adverse opinions of Catholics (47%) and devout Christians (44%).

These are among a pivotal commentary of a new Pew Research Center research formed on a consult conducted Sept. 13-18, 2022. This is not a initial time a Center has totalled views of eremite groups. Previous studies in 2014, 2017 and 2019 used a “feeling thermometer” to rate feelings on a scale from 0 to 100. The new consult uses a opposite approach, seeking respondents either their views toward several eremite groups are really favorable, rather favorable, conjunction auspicious nor unfavorable, rather unfavorable, or really unfavorable; respondents also had a choice of observant they “don’t know adequate to say.” Although a formula of a new consult are not directly allied with a prior studies, a extended patterns are similar. Both approaches uncover comparatively comfortable (i.e., positive) open attitudes toward Jews, Catholics and mainline Protestants, and cooler (i.e., some-more negative) opinions toward Mormons, Muslims and atheists.

The residue of this news looks during a formula of a new investigate in some-more detail.

Americans tend to rate their possess eremite organisation positively

Chart shows Jews, Mormons, atheists and Catholics in a U.S. mostly reason certain views of their possess group

The groups examined all rate themselves favorably, on balance. For instance, about eight-in-ten U.S. Jews (81%) rate Jews really or rather favorably, contra usually 2% who demonstrate adverse views. Similarly, 80% of members of a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints perspective Mormons favorably, while usually 3% reason an adverse opinion – a disproportion of 78 commission points. Majorities of atheists (72%) and Catholics (66%) also reason auspicious views of their possess eremite groups.

The design is a small reduction transparent with honour to views of “evangelical Christians” and “mainline Protestants.” Most of a groups asked about in a consult conform directly to a proceed respondents news themselves in a doubt about their eremite identity. Specifically, respondents are asked “What is your benefaction religion, if any?” and a options they can name from embody “Catholic,” “Mormon,” “Jewish,” “Muslim,” and “atheist,” among others. Thus, a consult provides a approach guess of how members of these groups rate their possess group.

However, there is no singular consult doubt in that respondents can brand themselves as “evangelical Christians” or as “mainline Protestants.” Rather, in response to a doubt about their benefaction religion, respondents have a choice of selecting “Protestant.” They are afterwards asked a yes-no question: “Would we news yourself as a born-again or devout Christian?” This doubt can assistance yield a severe (but distant from perfect) substitute for how these groups perspective themselves.

Chart shows 60% of born-again or devout Protestants contend they have a auspicious perspective of ‘evangelical Christians’ in U.S.

Most Protestants who news themselves as “born-again or devout Christians” (60%) contend they have a auspicious perspective of devout Christians. Among Protestants who are not born-again or evangelical, 42% demonstrate a auspicious perspective of mainline Protestants. This group’s rating of mainline Protestants is reduction auspicious than a ratings other eremite groups allot to themselves. Still, Protestants who are not born-again or devout are distant some-more certain than negative: Just 4% rate mainline Protestants unfavorably.

Chart shows among non-Jews, views toward Jews are many some-more certain than disastrous in a U.S.

When members of eremite groups are released from rating themselves, favorability ratings for some groups are lower. For instance, about a entertain of non-Catholics (26%) reason certain views of Catholics, while 34% of U.S. adults altogether (including Catholics) news really or rather auspicious attitudes toward Catholics.

Still, non-Catholics are some-more expected to have a auspicious (26%) than adverse (21%) perspective of Catholics. The same is loyal for Jews, though with an even bigger gap: About one-third of non-Jews (34%) demonstrate auspicious views toward Jews, compared with usually 7% of non-Jews who voice adverse views.

In contrast, Mormons, atheists and Muslims are noticed unfavorably, on balance, by Americans both altogether and outward of any of these groups. For example, about a entertain of U.S. adults who are not members of a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (26%) news disastrous views of Mormons, compared with 14% who reason certain views.

Chart shows outward of self-described ‘born-again or evangelical’ Protestants, views of devout Christians are some-more disastrous than certain in a U.S.

Among respondents who are not born-again or devout Protestants, views of devout Christians are distant some-more disastrous than positive. About a third in this organisation (32%) rate evangelicals negatively, compared with 18% who rate them positively, creation devout Christians among a many negatively rated eremite groups by people who are not members of a group.

By contrast, mainline Protestants are noticed distant some-more definitely than negatively by people who do not fit a severe estimation of mainline Protestant temperament (i.e., all respondents solely those who brand as Protestant though do not name a “born-again/evangelical” tag when asked in a follow-up consult question).

U.S. adults who know someone from a eremite organisation are some-more expected to news auspicious views of that group

Chart shows rising share of Americans know an atheist

With some exceptions, many Americans are privately proficient with members of a eremite groups that a consult examined. For instance, scarcely nine-in-ten Americans (88%) know someone who is Catholic.

A rising share of Americans also privately know an atheist. In 2019, 65% of Americans reported that they knew an atheist; in a new survey, 71% contend a same.

Nearly two-thirds of U.S. adults know someone who is devout Christian, Jewish or mainline Protestant (64% each). Americans are reduction expected to privately know a Muslim (50%) or a Mormon (43%).

Across a board, those who know someone from a eremite organisation (but are not members of that organisation themselves) are some-more expected than those who do not know someone in a organisation to offer an opinion of a organisation – and customarily to demonstrate some-more certain feelings. For example, about four-in-ten non-Jews who know a Jewish chairman (42%) demonstrate certain views of Jews, double a share among non-Jews who do not privately know someone in this eremite organisation (21%). However, a share of non-Jews who demonstrate a disastrous perspective toward Jews is matching regardless of either they know someone who is Jewish or do not (6% and 7%, respectively).

Americans who contend they privately know a mainline Protestant are about 3 times as expected to rate mainline Protestants definitely (38%) as negatively (12%). Among those who do not privately know a mainline Protestant, meanwhile, matching shares reason auspicious and adverse views of a organisation (10% each); many (79%) do not offer an opinion.

People who are not Muslim though know someone who is Muslim also are rather some-more expected to demonstrate a auspicious (24%) rather than adverse (21%) perspective of Muslims.

The change of opinion toward devout Christians is disastrous both among those who know someone who is an devout Christian (-11 commission points) and among those who do not (-19 points). While those who know an devout Christian are some-more expected than those who do not to demonstrate a certain perspective of a organisation (24% vs. 9%), they are also rather some-more expected than those who do not privately know an devout Christian to demonstrate a negative perspective of evangelicals (35% vs. 29%). This same settlement relates to Mormons: Non-Mormons who know someone who is Mormon not usually are some-more expected than those who don’t to demonstrate a auspicious perspective toward Mormons (19% vs. 10%), though also are some-more expected to demonstrate an unfavorable perspective (31% vs. 22%).

Chart shows change of open opinion toward evangelicals, Mormons in a U.S. is disastrous regardless of personal familiarity

Atheists have disastrous feelings about Christian groups in a U.S., and a feeling tends to be mutual

Catholics and mainline Protestants tend to be noticed some-more definitely than negatively by other Christian groups. For instance, born-again or devout Protestants are some-more expected to contend they reason auspicious (37%) than adverse (14%) views of Catholics.

The same is not loyal for views toward devout Christians and Mormons. On balance, Catholics and Protestants who are not born-again/evangelical are about as expected to demonstrate adverse views of devout Christians as they are to demonstrate auspicious views.

And nonetheless 54% of Mormons feel definitely toward devout Christians, a feelings are not reciprocal: 15% of born-again or devout Protestants feel definitely toward Mormons, compared with 27% who demonstrate disastrous views.

Chart shows Latter-day Saints (Mormons) feel definitely toward other Christian groups in U.S., though a retreat is not true

Among all a eremite groups asked about, usually Jews zodiacally accept net certain ratings from all other groups. While 81% of Jews rate their possess organisation favorably, Christians opposite several subgroups also rate Jews many some-more agreeably than unfavorably. For example, 45% of Protestants who news themselves as born-again or devout perspective Jews favorably, compared with 6% who have an adverse perspective toward Jews. (The consult did not embody adequate interviews with Muslim Americans to accurately magnitude their views toward Jews or any other group. Read some-more about how we news a views of smaller U.S. eremite groups.)

Jews are a usually eremite organisation who accept a certain rating, on balance, from atheists (+13 commission points), aside from atheists’ ratings of their possess group. Jews also are some-more expected to demonstrate certain than disastrous views toward atheists. By contrast, atheists feel overwhelmingly disastrous toward devout Christians (79% demonstrate adverse views, compared with 3% who demonstrate certain views). Atheists also are some-more disastrous than certain toward Catholics, mainline Protestants, Mormons and Muslims. The disastrous feelings are mutual when it comes to Protestants and Catholics, who give atheists net disastrous ratings.

Within many eremite groups, matching shares perspective Muslims negatively and positively, nonetheless some groups (such as born-again or devout Protestants and atheists) perspective Muslims some-more negatively than positively. Mormons are a usually organisation who demonstrate a net certain opinion toward Muslims, with 47% stating auspicious views and 11% stating adverse views.

In fact, Mormons do not demonstrate a net disastrous opinion toward any organisation in a survey, and are strongly certain toward several.

More than a third of Americans reason adverse views of mixed eremite groups

Most U.S. adults do not demonstrate disastrous feelings toward mixed eremite groups. In fact, about four-in-ten Americans (41%) do not demonstrate an adverse perspective toward any organisation mentioned in a survey. And roughly one-quarter demonstrate a disastrous perspective of usually one group, with atheists and devout Christians a many expected to be singled out.

Chart shows One-in-five Americans reason adverse views toward 3 or some-more eremite groups

It is reduction common for people to have adverse views toward dual (16%) or 3 (10%) groups. And even fewer demonstrate disastrous opinions of 4 groups (5%) or 5 or some-more (5%). Still, some-more than one-third of Americans have an adverse perspective of during slightest dual eremite groups, call a question: What are a many common patterns within this shred of a population?

To assistance answer this question, researchers used a statistical technique called cause analysis, that detects underlying patterns in how Americans rate all 7 eremite groups. This research identifies dual comparatively common patterns (“factors”) behind a movement in responses.

The initial is characterized by adverse views of mixed eremite groups other than atheists. Overall, 9% of U.S. adults demonstrate an adverse perspective of dual or some-more eremite groups accompanied by a auspicious perspective of atheists. This settlement is many common among atheists themselves, agnostics, and Democrats and independents who gaunt toward a Democratic Party.

The second cause is characterized by auspicious views of devout Christians, together with adverse views of atheists and Muslims. Overall, 7% of U.S. adults demonstrate a auspicious perspective of devout Christians along with adverse views of both atheists and Muslims. This settlement is many common among Republicans and Republican leaners (13%) and White devout Protestants (25%).

Moreover, many Americans who reason an adverse perspective of Jews also reason an adverse perspective of Muslims, though many people who reason an adverse perspective of Muslims do not demonstrate disastrous views of Jews. Overall, 4% of U.S. adults reason a disastrous perspective of both groups. Just 2% reason an adverse perspective of Jews though not Muslims, while a distant incomparable share binds an adverse perspective of Muslims though not Jews (18%).

Partisan differences in opinions on U.S. eremite groups

There are important differences in attitudes toward eremite groups when examined by domestic celebration affiliation. Republicans and GOP leaners hold, on balance, some-more auspicious than adverse views of devout Christians and Catholics. (Again, this research usually includes people who are not members of a organisation being rated; for example, Republicans’ ratings of devout Christians usually embody Republicans who are not devout or born-again Protestants.) By contrast, Democrats and Democratic leaners perspective evangelicals many some-more negatively than definitely and are as expected to perspective Catholics unfavorably as favorably. On balance, both Republicans and Democrats perspective Mormons negatively, nonetheless a domain is wider among Democrats (18 commission points) than Republicans (5 points).

Chart shows On balance, Democrats perspective Muslims and atheists positively, while Republicans perspective them negatively

Both Republicans and Democrats tend to perspective Jews favorably. About four-in-ten Republicans contend they see Jews definitely (38%), as do one-third of Democrats (33%). Identical shares perspective them negatively (6% each).

But there are many bigger narrow-minded gaps in views toward other non-Christians. Republicans are some-more expected to demonstrate disastrous than certain sentiments toward atheists and Muslims, while a retreat is loyal of Democrats, who are some-more auspicious than adverse toward these groups. Both atheists and Muslims gaunt heavily Democratic, nonetheless a same is loyal of Jews.

From The Marshall Project: “The Mercy Workers” —The Unique Role of Mitigation Specialists in Death Penalty Cases


on Mar 15, 2023

  • Sentencing Data

During a sentencing proviso of collateral cases, supportive justification about a life of a suspect is typically presented to jurors, who afterwards contingency confirm either such mitigating factors consequence provident his or her life. Mitigation specialists play a essential purpose in collecting such evidence. They request “the traumas, routine failures, family dynamics and particular choices that figure a lives of people who kill.” According to an essay from The Marshall Project, there are fewer than 1,000 mitigations specialists nationwide, nonetheless they’ve “helped expostulate down genocide sentences from some-more than 300 annually in a mid-1990s to fewer than 30 in new years.”

“My pursuit is to assistance people demeanour during my customer as a tellurian being,” Elizabeth Vartkessian, a heading slackening dilettante said, “The complement shouldn’t even need it, since it shouldn’t be a question.”

The essay by Maurice Chammah describes a hurdles slackening specialists face to humanize their clients. They “collect thousands of pages of annals from hospitals, schools, jails and courts, and talk dozens of people in any case. There are no shortcuts to supportive revelations of family secrets: A essential story of childhood passionate abuse or a serious mind damage competence not seem until a fifth revisit with an disloyal cousin who happened to declare a pivotal eventuality decades before.”

Sara Baldwin (pictured), another distinguished specialist, described her purpose as a “witness who knows and understands, but condemning,” and a routine as evaluating a torpedo “through a some-more kind lens.” She continued, “The terrible thing to see is a crime. We’re saying, ‘Please, please, demeanour past that, there’s a chairman here, and there’s some-more to it than we think.’”

Chammah concludes that “mitigation specialists force us to ask: When we demeanour during a face of someone who has finished good wrong, and glance into a blank of what we don’t know, do we see a beast or a essence in torment?”



Maurice Chammah, The Mercy Workers, The Marshall Project, Mar 22023

LEGISLATION: High Profile Cases in Texas Spur Legislative Activity on a Death Penalty


on Mar 13, 2023

  • Recent Legislative Activity

  • Texas

Prompted by a high-profile cases of Melissa Lucio, Andre Thomas, and John Ramirez, bills have been introduced in a Texas legislature to assistance forestall miscarriages of justice. Representative Joe Moody (pictured right) has authored dual bills, one that would sanction Texas prosecutors to cancel scheduled executions, and another to promote a use of systematic justification to relieve a person’s sentence. Lucio and Thomas both had execution dates, though were postulated proxy reprieves. Lucio lifted claims of ignorance and Thomas’ attorneys were serious his mental competency to be executed. Ramirez was executed in Oct 2022, notwithstanding efforts by a prosecutor to extend a stay.

Representative Toni Rose (pictured left) has authored a check that would forestall people diagnosed with serious mental illnesses from being condemned to death. The check has upheld a House any of a final dual sessions though has not upheld in a Senate.

During a conference on his check on Mar 7, 2023, Moody commented, “Whatever we consider about those dual cases (Lucio and Ramirez), this is a kind of dispute that creates awful resources in a state. The prevalent trend in both cases is how we trust we should solve that: we should make it transparent that a management rests with a prosecutor.”


Edward McKinley, Texas genocide penal­ty cas­es of Melissa Lucio, Andre Thomas enthuse new pull for reforms, San Antonio Express-News, Mar 102023.